Click on image to view larger version.
Summary of the cAMP signaling cascade. cAMP is produced from ATP by adenylyl cyclase and is broken down by phosphodiesterases to 5' AMP. Adenylyl cyclase activity can be modulated by agonist binding at GPCRs. cAMP acts directly on three targets: PKA, Epac, and CNGCs. These in turn regulate various cellular processes both directly and through intermediaries. For clarity, a number of pathways mediated by PKA, Epac, and Rap1 have been omitted. These pathways are discussed more fully in (1, 6, 8, 9, 63). AKAP, A-kinase anchoring protein; ATF1, activating transcription factor 1; C, protein kinase A catalytic subunit; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; CNGC, cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel; CREB, cAMP response element–binding protein; CREM, cAMP response element modulator; ERK1/2, extracellular signal–related kinase 1/2; JNK, Jun N-terminal kinase; PDE, phosphodiesterases; PKA, protein kinase A; R, protein kinase A regulatory subunit
[PowerPoint download feature is available to paid individual subscribers and to registered users at subscribing institutions (register for free).]
You may download the image(s) above for non-profit educational presentation use only, provided no modifications are made to the content. Any use, publication, or distribution of the image(s) beyond that permitted in the sentence above or beyond that allowed by the "Fair Use" limitations (sections 107 and 108) of the US Copyright law requires the prior written permission of AAAS. This permission does not apply to images that are credited to non-AAAS sources. For images credited to non-AAAS entities, you will need to obtain permission from the entity listed in the legend or credit line before making any use of the image(s).