Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Sci. STKE, 4 September 2007
Vol. 2007, Issue 402, p. pe47
[DOI: 10.1126/stke.4022007pe47]


Toll-Like Receptors in Brain Development and Homeostasis

Peter H. Larsen, Thomas H. Holm, and Trevor Owens*

Medical Biotechnology Center, University of Southern Denmark, Winsloewparken 25, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark.

Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known as initiators of the innate immune response to pathogens. Recent reports now reveal intriguing roles for TLRs in the central nervous system (CNS). These include the regulation of neuroinflammation and of neurite outgrowth. The archetypal Toll protein in Drosophila melanogaster was implicated in the development of the nervous system. Now similar functions have been uncovered for the mammalian orthologs, the TLRs. TLRs expressed on CNS glia and neurons may recognize endogenous ligands and participate both in development and in responses associated with CNS injury.

*Corresponding author. E-mail, towens{at}

Citation: P. H. Larsen, T. H. Holm, T. Owens, Toll-Like Receptors in Brain Development and Homeostasis. Sci. STKE 2007, pe47 (2007).

Read the Full Text

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation induces microRNA-dependent reexpression of functional RAR{beta} and tumor regression.
R. Galli, A. Paone, M. Fabbri, N. Zanesi, F. Calore, L. Cascione, M. Acunzo, A. Stoppacciaro, A. Tubaro, F. Lovat, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 9812-9817
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Injury-Induced Type I IFN Signaling Regulates Inflammatory Responses in the Central Nervous System.
R. Khorooshi and T. Owens (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 1258-1264
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human Neuronal Cells Possess Functional Cytoplasmic and TLR-Mediated Innate Immune Pathways Influenced by Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase Signaling.
D. C. Peltier, A. Simms, J. R. Farmer, and D. J. Miller (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 7010-7021
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Studies of SARM1 Uncover Similarities Between Immune and Neuronal Responses to Danger.
M. Dalod (2007)
Sci. STKE 2007, pe73
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882