Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Sci. STKE, 19 December 2000
Vol. 2000, Issue 63, p. re1
[DOI: 10.1126/stke.2000.63.re1]


LAT, the Linker for Activation of T Cells: A Bridge Between T Cell-Specific and General Signaling Pathways

Ronald L. Wange

The author is at the Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. E-mail: wanger{at}

Abstract: A key event in the regulation of the adaptive immune response is the binding of major histocompatibility complex-bound foreign peptides to T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) that are present on the cell surface of T lymphocytes. Recognition of the presence of cognate antigen in the host animal induces a series of biochemical changes within the T cell; these changes, in the context of additional signals from other surface receptors, ultimately result in massive proliferation of receptor-engaged T cells and the acquisition of effector and memory functions. Early studies established the importance of the activation of the enzymes phospholipase C-{gamma}1 (PLC-{gamma}1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as the small molecular weight heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) Ras, in this process. These biochemical events are dependent on the activity of several protein tyrosine kinases that become activated immediately upon TCR engagement. An unresolved question in the field has been which molecules and what sequence of events tie together the early tyrosine phosphorylation events with the activation of these downstream signaling molecules. A likely candidate for linking the proximal and distal portions of the TCR signaling pathway is the recently described protein, LAT. LAT is a 36-kD transmembrane protein that becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated after TCR engagement. Phosphorylation of LAT creates binding sites for the Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of other proteins, including PLC-{gamma}1, Grb2, Gads, Grap, 3BP2, and Shb, and indirectly binds SOS, c-Cbl, Vav, SLP-76, and Itk. LAT is localized to the glycolipid-enriched membrane (GEM) subdomains of the plasma membrane by virtue of palmitoylation of two cysteine residues positioned near the endofacial side of the plasma membrane. Notably, in the absence of LAT, TCR engagement does not lead to activation of distal signaling events. This review examines the circumstances surrounding the discovery of LAT and our current understanding of its properties, and discusses current models for how LAT may be functioning to support the transduction of TCR-initiated, T cell-specific signaling events to the distal, general signaling machinery.

Citation: R. L. Wange, LAT, the Linker for Activation of T Cells: A Bridge Between T Cell-Specific and General Signaling Pathways. Sci. STKE 2000, re1 (2000).

Read the Full Text

HIV-1 Nef Limits Communication between Linker of Activated T Cells and SLP-76 To Reduce Formation of SLP-76-Signaling Microclusters following TCR Stimulation.
L. Abraham, P. Bankhead, X. Pan, U. Engel, and O. T. Fackler (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 1898-1910
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
SAP-Mediated Inhibition of Diacylglycerol Kinase {alpha} Regulates TCR-Induced Diacylglycerol Signaling.
G. Baldanzi, A. Pighini, V. Bettio, E. Rainero, S. Traini, F. Chianale, P. E. Porporato, N. Filigheddu, R. Mesturini, S. Song, et al. (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 5941-5951
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IGSF4 is a novel TCR {zeta}-chain-interacting protein that enhances TCR-mediated signaling.
H.-R. Kim, B.-H. Jeon, H.-S. Lee, S.-H. Im, M. Araki, K. Araki, K.-i. Yamamura, S.-C. Choi, D.-S. Park, and C.-D. Jun (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 2545-2560
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of Two Adaptor Molecules SLP-76 and LAT in the PI3K Signaling Pathway in Activated T Cells.
E. K. Shim, S. H. Jung, and J. R. Lee (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 2926-2935
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
{beta}-Catenin Inhibits T Cell Activation by Selective Interference with Linker for Activation of T Cells-Phospholipase C-{gamma}1 Phosphorylation.
G. Driessens, Y. Zheng, F. Locke, J. L. Cannon, F. Gounari, and T. F. Gajewski (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 784-790
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LAB/NTAL/Lat2: a force to be reckoned with in all leukocytes?.
S. J. Orr and D. W. McVicar (2011)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 89, 11-19
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Palmitoylation of Ligands, Receptors, and Intracellular Signaling Molecules.
M. D. Resh (2006)
Sci. STKE 2006, re14
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Targeting G{beta}{gamma} Signaling to Inhibit Prostate Tumor Formation and Growth.
A. L. Bookout, A. E. Finney, R. Guo, K. Peppel, W. J. Koch, and Y. Daaka (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 37569-37573
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882