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Xenopus Cyr61 regulates gastrulation movements and modulates Wnt signalling
B. V. Latinkic1,
E. M. A. Hirst1,
L. F. Lau3,
T. J. Mohun1, and
J. C. Smith1,2,*
1 Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research,
The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK 2 Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Institute and Department of Zoology,
University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK 3 Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago,
Illinois 60607-7170, USA
Author for correspondence (e-mail:
Accepted for publication 20 February 2003.
Cyr61 is a secreted, heparin-binding, extracellular matrix-associated
proteinwhose activities include the promotion of adhesion and chemotaxis,and
the stimulation of fibroblast and endothelial cell growth.Many, if not all,
of these activities of Cyr61 are mediatedthrough interactions with integrins.
We explore the role ofCyr61 in the early development of Xenopus
laevis. Gain- andloss-of-function experiments show that Xcyr61 is
required fornormal gastrulation movements. This role is mediated in part
throughthe adhesive properties of Xcyr61 and its related ability tomodulate
assembly of the extracellular matrix. In addition,Xcyr61 can, in a
context-dependent manner, stimulate or inhibitsignalling through the Wnt
pathway. These properties of Xcyr61provide a mechanism for integrating cell
signalling, cell adhesionand cell migration during gastrulation.