Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Development 137 (22): 3911-3920


RPK2 is an essential receptor-like kinase that transmits the CLV3 signal in Arabidopsis

Atsuko Kinoshita1, Shigeyuki Betsuyaku1,2, Yuriko Osakabe3, Shinji Mizuno4,5, Shingo Nagawa1,6, Yvonne Stahl7, Rüdiger Simon7, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki3,5, Hiroo Fukuda1, and Shinichiro Sawa1,*

1 Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
2 Division of Life Sciences, Komaba Organization for Educational Excellence (KOMEX), Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan.
3 Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
4 Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan.
5 Biological Resources Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan.
6 Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, 3401 Watkins Drive, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
7 Institut für Genetik der Heinrich-Heine Universität, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

* Author for correspondence (sawa{at}

Accepted for publication 14 September 2010.

Abstract: The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is the fundamental structure that is located at the growing tip and gives rise to all aerial parts of plant tissues and organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the CLAVATA3 (CLV3) pathway regulates the stem cell pool in the SAM, in which a small peptide ligand derived from CLV3 is perceived by two major receptor complexes, CLV1 and CLV2-CORYNE (CRN)/SUPPRESSOR OF LLP1 2 (SOL2), to restrict WUSCHEL (WUS) expression. In this study, we used the functional, synthetic CLV3 peptide (MCLV3) to isolate CLV3-insensitive mutants and revealed that a receptor-like kinase, RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), also known as TOADSTOOL 2 (TOAD2), is another key regulator of meristem maintenance. Mutations in the RPK2 gene result in stem cell expansion and increased number of floral organs, as seen in the other clv mutants. These phenotypes are additive with both clv1 and clv2 mutations. Moreover, our biochemical analyses using Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that RPK2 forms homo-oligomers but does not associate with CLV1 or CLV2. These genetic and biochemical findings suggest that three major receptor complexes, RPK2 homomers, CLV1 homomers and CLV2-CRN/SOL2 heteromers, are likely to mediate three signalling pathways, mainly in parallel but with potential crosstalk, to regulate the SAM homeostasis.

Key Words: ArabidopsisMeristemCLAVATA3 signalling pathwayReceptor-like kinase

Spatial expression of CLAVATA3 in the shoot apical meristem suggests it is not a stem cell marker in soybean.
C. E. Wong, M. B. Singh, and P. L. Bhalla (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 5641-5649
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mutations in the Arabidopsis RPK1 gene uncouple cotyledon anlagen and primordia by modulating epidermal cell shape and polarity.
M. Luichtl, B. S. Fiesselmann, M. Matthes, X. Yang, O. Peis, A. Brunner, and R. A. Torres-Ruiz (2013)
Biology Open 2, 1093-1102
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
WOX4 and WOX14 act downstream of the PXY receptor kinase to regulate plant vascular proliferation independently of any role in vascular organisation.
J. P. Etchells, C. M. Provost, L. Mishra, and S. R. Turner (2013)
Development 140, 2224-2234
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ERECTA-Family Receptor Kinases Regulate Stem Cell Homeostasis via Buffering its Cytokinin Responsiveness in the Shoot Apical Meristem.
N. Uchida, M. Shimada, and M. Tasaka (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 343-351
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Grass Meristems I: Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Axillary Meristem Determinacy and the Floral Transition.
M. Pautler, W. Tanaka, H.-Y. Hirano, and D. Jackson (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 302-312
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Antagonistic Peptide Technology for Functional Dissection of CLV3/ESR Genes in Arabidopsis.
X.-F. Song, P. Guo, S.-C. Ren, T.-T. Xu, and C.-M. Liu (2013)
Plant Physiology 161, 1076-1085
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TRICOT encodes an AMP1-related carboxypeptidase that regulates root nodule development and shoot apical meristem maintenance in Lotus japonicus.
T. Suzaki, C. S. Kim, N. Takeda, K. Szczyglowski, and M. Kawaguchi (2013)
Development 140, 353-361
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sensing the environment: key roles of membrane-localized kinases in plant perception and response to abiotic stress.
Y. Osakabe, K. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. Shinozaki, and L.-S. P. Tran (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 445-458
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 Is Involved in Meristem Maintenance and Is Negatively Regulated by the CLE Gene FCP1 in Rice.
Y. Ohmori, W. Tanaka, M. Kojima, H. Sakakibara, and H.-Y. Hirano (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 229-241
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CLE Signaling Systems During Plant Development and Nematode Infection.
S. Kiyohara and S. Sawa (2012)
Plant Cell Physiol. 53, 1989-1999
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Small Signaling Peptides in Arabidopsis Development: How Cells Communicate Over a Short Distance.
E. Murphy, S. Smith, and I. De Smet (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3198-3217
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Shoot Apical Meristem Regulatory Peptide CLV3 Does Not Activate Innate Immunity.
C. Segonzac, Z. L. Nimchuk, M. Beck, P. T. Tarr, S. Robatzek, E. M. Meyerowitz, and C. Zipfel (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3186-3192
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Complexity in Differential Peptide-Receptor Signaling: Response to Segonzac et al. and Mueller et al. Commentaries.
H. Lee, A. Khatri, J. M. Plotnikov, X.-C. Zhang, and J. Sheen (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3177-3185
   Full Text »    PDF »
Peptides and receptors controlling root development.
Y. Stahl and R. Simon (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 1453-1460
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tackling Drought Stress: RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES Present New Approaches.
A. Marshall, R. B. Aalen, D. Audenaert, T. Beeckman, M. R. Broadley, M. A. Butenko, A. I. Cano-Delgado, S. de Vries, T. Dresselhaus, G. Felix, et al. (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 2262-2278
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflorescence Meristem Identity in Rice Is Specified by Overlapping Functions of Three AP1/FUL-Like MADS Box Genes and PAP2, a SEPALLATA MADS Box Gene.
K. Kobayashi, N. Yasuno, Y. Sato, M. Yoda, R. Yamazaki, M. Kimizu, H. Yoshida, Y. Nagamura, and J. Kyozuka (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 1848-1859
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cytokinin signaling as a positional cue for patterning the apical-basal axis of the growing Arabidopsis shoot meristem.
V. S. Chickarmane, S. P. Gordon, P. T. Tarr, M. G. Heisler, and E. M. Meyerowitz (2012)
PNAS 109, 4002-4007
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Contributions of Individual Amino Acid Residues to the Endogenous CLV3 Function in Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance in Arabidopsis.
X.-F. Song, D.-L. Yu, T.-T. Xu, S.-C. Ren, P. Guo, and C.-M. Liu (2012)
Mol Plant 5, 515-523
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of Arabidopsis Embryo and Endosperm Development by the Polypeptide Signaling Molecule CLE8.
E. Fiume and J. C. Fletcher (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 1000-1012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX5 Gene Expression and Interaction of CLE Peptides with Components of the Systemic Control Add Two Pieces to the Puzzle of Autoregulation of Nodulation.
M. A. Osipova, V. Mortier, K. N. Demchenko, V. E. Tsyganov, I. A. Tikhonovich, L. A. Lutova, E. A. Dolgikh, and S. Goormachtig (2012)
Plant Physiology 158, 1329-1341
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Tale of Two Systems: Peptide Ligand-Receptor Pairs in Plant Development.
J. S. Lee and K. U. Torii (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 77, 83-89
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stem Cell Signaling in Immunity and Development.
H. Lee, O.- K. Chah, J. Plotnikov, and J. Sheen (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 77, 75-81
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
WUSCHEL protein movement mediates stem cell homeostasis in the Arabidopsis shoot apex.
R. K. Yadav, M. Perales, J. Gruel, T. Girke, H. Jonsson, and G. V. Reddy (2011)
Genes & Dev. 25, 2025-2030
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation.
D. E. Reid, B. J. Ferguson, S. Hayashi, Y.-H. Lin, and P. M. Gresshoff (2011)
Ann. Bot. 108, 789-795
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Novel Function of TDIF-Related Peptides: Promotion of Axillary Bud Formation.
H. Yaginuma, Y. Hirakawa, Y. Kondo, K. Ohashi-Ito, and H. Fukuda (2011)
Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 1354-1364
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intercellular Communication during Plant Development.
J. M. Van Norman, N. W. Breakfield, and P. N. Benfey (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 855-864
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulated by the CLAVATA Receptors Contributes to Shoot Apical Meristem Homeostasis.
S. Betsuyaku, F. Takahashi, A. Kinoshita, H. Miwa, K. Shinozaki, H. Fukuda, and S. Sawa (2011)
Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 14-29
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The receptor-like kinase KLAVIER mediates systemic regulation of nodulation and non-symbiotic shoot development in Lotus japonicus.
H. Miyazawa, E. Oka-Kira, N. Sato, H. Takahashi, G.-J. Wu, S. Sato, M. Hayashi, S. Betsuyaku, M. Nakazono, S. Tabata, et al. (2010)
Development 137, 4317-4325
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882