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Genes & Dev. 26 (1): 1-5

Copyright © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.


A firm grip does not always pay off: a new Phact(r) 4 integrin signaling

Zhiqi Sun, and Reinhard Fässler1

Department of Molecular Medicine, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried 82152, Germany

Abstract: β1 integrin signaling plays crucial roles in enteric nervous system development. Zhang and colleagues (pp. 69–81) discovered that phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (Phactr4) antagonizes β1 integrin signaling through protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in focal adhesions of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). Loss of Phactr4–PP1 interaction leads to increased β1 integrin signaling, loss of collective and directional migration, and hindgut hypogangaliosis, indicating that the right adjustment of β1 integrin signaling is required for the normal migration and organization of ENCCs.

Key Words: directional cell migration • enteric neural crest cell • Hirschsprung disease • Phactr4 • PP1 • β1 integrin • cofilin

1 Corresponding author.

E-mail: faessler{at}

Article is online at

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