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J. Biol. Chem. 280 (45): 37827-37832

© 2005 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Cross-talk between the Two Divergent Insulin Signaling Pathways Is Revealed by the Protein Kinase B (Akt)-mediated Phosphorylation of Adapter Protein APS on Serine 588*

Kostas D. Katsanakis, and Tahir S. Pillay, A Wellcome Senior Fellow in Clinical Science1

Institute of Cell Signaling and School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom

Abstract: The APS adapter protein is recruited to the autophosphorylated kinase domain of the insulin receptor and initiates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-independent pathway of insulin-stimulated glucose transport by recruiting CAP and c-Cbl. In this study, we have identified APS as a novel substrate for protein kinase B/Akt using an antibody that exhibits insulin-dependent immunoreactivity with a phosphospecific antibody raised against the protein kinase B substrate consensus sequence RXRXX(pS/pT) and a phosphospecific antibody that recognizes serine 21/9 of glycogen synthase kinase-3{alpha}/{beta}. This phosphorylation of APS is observed in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and transfected cells. The insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of APS was inhibited by a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY290004, a specific protein kinase B (PKB) inhibitor, deguelin, and knockdown of Akt. Serine 588 of APS is contained in a protein kinase B consensus sequence for phosphorylation conserved in APS across multiple species but not found in other members of this family, including SH2-B and Lnk. Mutation of serine 588 to alanine abolished the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of APS and prevented the localization of APS to membrane ruffles. A glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing amino acids 534-621 of APS was phosphorylated by purified PKB in vitro, and mutation of serine 588 abolished the PKB-mediated phosphorylation of APS in vitro. Taken together, this study identifies APS as a novel physiological substrate for PKB and the first serine phosphorylation site on APS. These data therefore reveal the molecular cross-talk between the insulin-activated PI3-kinase-dependent and -independent pathways previously thought to be distinct and divergent.

Received for publication June 1, 2005. Revision received August 22, 2005.

* This work was supported by grants from the Wellcome Trust and Diabetes UK.

1 To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel.: 44-115-970-9488; Fax: 44-115-919-4493; E-mail: tpillay{at}

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