Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2): 1181-1188

© 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Light Modulation of Cellular cAMP by a Small Bacterial Photoactivated Adenylyl Cyclase, bPAC, of the Soil Bacterium Beggiatoa*{diamondsuit}

Manuela Stierl{ddagger}, Patrick Stumpf§, Daniel Udwari, Ronnie Gueta§, Rolf Hagedorn{ddagger}, Aba Losi||, Wolfgang Gärtner**, Linda Petereit{ddagger}{ddagger}, Marina Efetova{ddagger}{ddagger}, Martin Schwarzel{ddagger}{ddagger}, Thomas G. Oertner, Georg Nagel§, , and Peter Hegemann{ddagger}1

From the {ddagger}Experimental Biophysics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany,
the §Department of Botany I, the University of Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 2, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany,
the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland,
the ||Department of Physics, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy,
the **Max-Planck-Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry, Postfach 1013 56, D-45410 Mülheim, Germany, and
the {ddagger}{ddagger}Department of Biology, Free University Berlin, Takustrasse 6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany

ABSTRACT Back to Top

Abstract: The recent success of channelrhodopsin in optogenetics has also caused increasing interest in enzymes that are directly activated by light. We have identified in the genome of the bacterium Beggiatoa a DNA sequence encoding an adenylyl cyclase directly linked to a BLUF (blue light receptor using FAD) type light sensor domain. In Escherichia coli and Xenopus oocytes, this photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) showed cyclase activity that is low in darkness but increased 300-fold in the light. This enzymatic activity decays thermally within 20 s in parallel with the red-shifted BLUF photointermediate. bPAC is well expressed in pyramidal neurons and, in combination with cyclic nucleotide gated channels, causes efficient light-induced depolarization. In the Drosophila central nervous system, bPAC mediates light-dependent cAMP increase and behavioral changes in freely moving animals. bPAC seems a perfect optogenetic tool for light modulation of cAMP in neuronal cells and tissues and for studying cAMP-dependent processes in live animals.


Key Words: Bacterial Metabolism • Biophysics • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) • Cyclic Nucleotides • Enzyme Catalysis • Enzyme Inactivation • Neurobiology • Photoreceptors • Optogenetics

Received for publication September 20, 2010. Revision received October 26, 2010.

1 To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel.: 49-30-2093-8681; Fax: 49-30-2093-8520; E-mail: Hegemann{at}rz.hu-berlin.de.


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Genetically encoded molecular probes to visualize and perturb signaling dynamics in living biological systems.
V. Sample, S. Mehta, and J. Zhang (2014)
J. Cell Sci. 127, 1151-1160
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular eyes: proteins that transform light into biological information.
J. T. M. Kennis and T. Mathes (2013)
Interface Focus 3, 20130005
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Optogenetic Modulation of an Adenylate Cyclase in Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrates a Requirement of the Parasite cAMP for Host-Cell Invasion and Stage Differentiation.
A. Hartmann, R. D. Arroyo-Olarte, K. Imkeller, P. Hegemann, R. Lucius, and N. Gupta (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 13705-13717
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Optogenetics at a crossroads?.
S. Kasparov and S. Herlitze (2013)
Exp Physiol 98, 971-972
   Full Text »    PDF »
Cardiac optogenetics.
E. Entcheva (2013)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 304, H1179-H1191
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Separate roles of PKA and EPAC in renal function unraveled by the optogenetic control of cAMP levels in vivo.
M. Efetova, L. Petereit, K. Rosiewicz, G. Overend, F. Haussig, B. T. Hovemann, P. Cabrero, J. A. T. Dow, and M. Schwarzel (2013)
J. Cell Sci. 126, 778-788
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Light Detection and Signal Transduction in the BLUF Photoreceptors.
S. Masuda (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 171-179
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Photochromic Histidine Kinase Rhodopsin (HKR1) That Is Bimodally Switched by Ultraviolet and Blue Light.
M. Luck, T. Mathes, S. Bruun, R. Fudim, R. Hagedorn, T. M. Tran Nguyen, S. Kateriya, J. T. M. Kennis, P. Hildebrandt, and P. Hegemann (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 40083-40090
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Redox Modulation of Flavin and Tyrosine Determines Photoinduced Proton-coupled Electron Transfer and Photoactivation of BLUF Photoreceptors.
T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. Stierl, and J. T. M. Kennis (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 31725-31738
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LOV to BLUF: Flavoprotein Contributions to the Optogenetic Toolkit.
J. M. Christie, J. Gawthorne, G. Young, N. J. Fraser, and A. J. Roe (2012)
Mol Plant 5, 533-544
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High-efficiency channelrhodopsins for fast neuronal stimulation at low light levels.
A. Berndt, P. Schoenenberger, J. Mattis, K. M. Tye, K. Deisseroth, P. Hegemann, and T. G. Oertner (2011)
PNAS 108, 7595-7600
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882