Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

J. Cell Biol. 170 (3): 391-399

Copyright © 2005 by the Rockefeller University Press.


Article

Viruses activate a genetically conserved cell death pathway in a unicellular organism

Iva Ivanovska1, and J. Marie Hardwick1,2

1 Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
2 Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205

Correspondence to J. Marie Hardwick: hardwick{at}jhu.edu

Abstract: Given the importance of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of virus infections in mammals, we investigated the possibility that unicellular organisms also respond to viral pathogens by activating programmed cell death. The M1 and M2 killer viruses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode pore-forming toxins that were assumed to kill uninfected yeast cells by a nonprogrammed assault. However, we found that yeast persistently infected with these killer viruses induce a programmed suicide pathway in uninfected (nonself) yeast. The M1 virus–encoded K1 toxin is primarily but not solely responsible for triggering the death pathway. Cell death is mediated by the mitochondrial fission factor Dnm1/Drp1, the K+ channel Tok1, and the yeast metacaspase Yca1/Mca1 encoded by the target cell and conserved in mammals. In contrast, cell death is inhibited by yeast Fis1, a pore-forming outer mitochondrial membrane protein. This virus–host relationship in yeast resembles that of pathogenic human viruses that persist in their infected host cells but trigger programmed death of uninfected cells.

Abbreviations used in this paper: cfu, colony forming units; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; YPD, yeast peptone dextrose.


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
The Arabidopsis METACASPASE9 Degradome.
L. Tsiatsiani, E. Timmerman, P.-J. De Bock, D. Vercammen, S. Stael, B. van de Cotte, A. Staes, M. Goethals, T. Beunens, P. Van Damme, et al. (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 2831-2847
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calnexin Is Involved in Apoptosis Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Fission Yeast.
R. Guerin, G. Arseneault, S. Dumont, and L. A. Rokeach (2008)
Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 4404-4420
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis.
D.-F. Suen, K. L. Norris, and R. J. Youle (2008)
Genes & Dev. 22, 1577-1590
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effect of dispersal and nutrient availability on the competitive ability of toxin-producing yeast.
D. M Wloch-Salamon, D. Gerla, R. F Hoekstra, and J. A. G.M de Visser (2008)
Proc R Soc B 275, 535-541
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
What happened to plant caspases?.
L. Bonneau, Y. Ge, G. E. Drury, and P. Gallois (2008)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Metacaspase-8 Modulates Programmed Cell Death Induced by Ultraviolet Light and H2O2 in Arabidopsis.
R. He, G. E. Drury, V. I. Rotari, A. Gordon, M. Willer, T. Farzaneh, E. J. Woltering, and P. Gallois (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 774-783
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Why yeast cells can undergo apoptosis: death in times of peace, love, and war.
S. Buttner, T. Eisenberg, E. Herker, D. Carmona-Gutierrez, G. Kroemer, and F. Madeo (2006)
J. Cell Biol. 175, 521-525
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Programmed cell death in the aspergilli and other filamentous fungi.
G. D. Robson (2006)
Med Mycol 44, S109-S114
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multiple Signaling Pathways Regulate Yeast Cell Death during the Response to Mating Pheromones.
N.-N. Zhang, D. D. Dudgeon, S. Paliwal, A. Levchenko, E. Grote, and K. W. Cunningham (2006)
Mol. Biol. Cell 17, 3409-3422
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei depend upon multiple metacaspases associated with RAB11-positive endosomes.
M. J. Helms, A. Ambit, P. Appleton, L. Tetley, G. H. Coombs, and J. C. Mottram (2006)
J. Cell Sci. 119, 1105-1117
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882