Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

PLANT CELL 14 (11): 2941-2955

Copyright © 2002 by the American Society of Plant Physiologists.

Positioning of Nuclei in Arabidopsis Root Hairs

An Actin-Regulated Process of Tip Growth

Tijs Ketelaar1,a, Cendrine Faivre-Moskalenkob, John J. Esselinga, Norbert C. A. de Ruijtera, Claire S. Griersonc, Marileen Dogteromb, and Anne Mie C. Emons2,a

a Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen University Arboretumlaan, 4 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
b Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
c Cell Biology Department, School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom

2 To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail annemie.emons{at}; fax 31-317-485005

Abstract: In growing Arabidopsis root hairs, the nucleus locates at a fixed distance from the apex, migrates to a random position during growth arrest, and moves from branch to branch in a mutant with branched hairs. Consistently, an artificial increase of the distance between the nucleus and the apex, achieved by entrapment of the nucleus in a laser beam, stops cell growth. Drug studies show that microtubules are not involved in the positioning of the nucleus but that subapical fine F-actin between the nucleus and the hair apex is required to maintain the nuclear position with respect to the growing apex. Injection of an antibody against plant villin, an actin filament-bundling protein, leads to actin filament unbundling and movement of the nucleus closer to the apex. Thus, the bundled actin at the tip side of the nucleus prevents the nucleus from approaching the apex. In addition, we show that the basipetal movement of the nucleus at root hair growth arrest requires protein synthesis and a functional actin cytoskeleton in the root hair tube.

Live cell imaging reveals actin-cytoskeleton-induced self-association of the actin-bundling protein WLIM1.
C. Hoffmann, D. Moes, M. Dieterle, K. Neumann, F. Moreau, A. Tavares Furtado, D. Dumas, A. Steinmetz, and C. Thomas (2014)
J. Cell Sci. 127, 583-598
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant nuclear photorelocation movement.
T. Higa, N. Suetsugu, and M. Wada (2013)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nitric oxide is essential for vesicle formation and trafficking in Arabidopsis root hair growth.
M. C. Lombardo and L. Lamattina (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 4875-4885
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synchronously developing collet hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana provide an easily accessible system for studying nuclear movement and endoreduplication.
E. Sliwinska, J. Mathur, and J. D. Bewley (2012)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis VILLIN2 and VILLIN3 Are Required for the Generation of Thick Actin Filament Bundles and for Directional Organ Growth.
H. S. van der Honing, H. Kieft, A. M. C. Emons, and T. Ketelaar (2012)
Plant Physiology 158, 1426-1438
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
New Technologies for 21st Century Plant Science.
D. W. Ehrhardt and W. B. Frommer (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 374-394
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Novel plant SUN-KASH bridges are involved in RanGAP anchoring and nuclear shape determination.
X. Zhou, K. Graumann, D. E. Evans, and I. Meier (2012)
J. Cell Biol. 196, 203-211
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bleach it, switch it, bounce it, pull it: using lasers to reveal plant cell dynamics.
I. A. Sparkes, K. Graumann, A. Martiniere, J. Schoberer, P. Wang, and A. Osterrieder (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 1-7
   Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis FIMBRIN5, an Actin Bundling Factor, Is Required for Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth.
Y. Wu, J. Yan, R. Zhang, X. Qu, S. Ren, N. Chen, and S. Huang (2010)
PLANT CELL 22, 3745-3763
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Linear Arrays of Nuclear Envelope Proteins Harness Retrograde Actin Flow for Nuclear Movement.
G. W. G. Luxton, E. R. Gomes, E. S. Folker, E. Vintinner, and G. G. Gundersen (2010)
Science 329, 956-959
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis VILLIN1 and VILLIN3 Have Overlapping and Distinct Activities in Actin Bundle Formation and Turnover.
P. Khurana, J. L. Henty, S. Huang, A. M. Staiger, L. Blanchoin, and C. J. Staiger (2010)
PLANT CELL 22, 2727-2748
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of actin dynamics by actin-binding proteins in pollen.
C. J. Staiger, N. S. Poulter, J. L. Henty, V. E. Franklin-Tong, and L. Blanchoin (2010)
J. Exp. Bot. 61, 1969-1986
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Actin Reorganization Underlies Phototropin-Dependent Positioning of Nuclei in Arabidopsis Leaf Cells.
K. Iwabuchi, R. Minamino, and S. Takagi (2010)
Plant Physiology 152, 1309-1319
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nesprin 1 is critical for nuclear positioning and anchorage.
J. Zhang, A. Felder, Y. Liu, L. T. Guo, S. Lange, N. D. Dalton, Y. Gu, K. L. Peterson, A. P. Mizisin, G. D. Shelton, et al. (2010)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 19, 329-341
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Blue Light-Dependent Nuclear Positioning in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Cells.
K. Iwabuchi, T. Sakai, and S. Takagi (2007)
Plant Cell Physiol. 48, 1291-1298
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nuclear dynamics during the simultaneous and sustained tip growth of multiple root hairs arising from a single root epidermal cell.
M. Jones and N. Smirnoff (2006)
J. Exp. Bot. 57, 4269-4275
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Distribution of G-actin is Related to Root Hair Growth of Wheat.
X. HE, Y.-M. LIU, W. WANG, and Y. LI (2006)
Ann. Bot. 98, 49-55
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Actin Microfilaments Regulate Vacuolar Structures and Dynamics: Dual Observation of Actin Microfilaments and Vacuolar Membrane in Living Tobacco BY-2 Cells.
T. Higaki, N. Kutsuna, E. Okubo, T. Sano, and S. Hasezawa (2006)
Plant Cell Physiol. 47, 839-852
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant Villin, Lily P-135-ABP, Possesses G-Actin Binding Activity and Accelerates the Polymerization and Depolymerization of Actin in a Ca2+-Sensitive Manner.
E. Yokota, M. Tominaga, I. Mabuchi, Y. Tsuji, C. J. Staiger, K. Oiwa, and T. Shimmen (2005)
Plant Cell Physiol. 46, 1690-1703
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of the spindle-pole-body protein ApsB and the cortex protein ApsA in microtubule organization and nuclear migration in Aspergillus nidulans.
D. Veith, N. Scherr, V. P. Efimov, and R. Fischer (2005)
J. Cell Sci. 118, 3705-3716
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microtubules Are Dispensable for the Initial Pathogenic Development but Required for Long-Distance Hyphal Growth in the Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis.
U. Fuchs, I. Manns, and G. Steinberg (2005)
Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 2746-2758
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis VILLIN1 Generates Actin Filament Cables That Are Resistant to Depolymerization.
S. Huang, R. C. Robinson, L. Y. Gao, T. Matsumoto, A. Brunet, L. Blanchoin, and C. J. Staiger (2005)
PLANT CELL 17, 486-501
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reorganization and in Vivo Dynamics of Microtubules during Arabidopsis Root Hair Development.
N. Van Bruaene, G. Joss, and P. Van Oostveldt (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3905-3919
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Green Fluorescent Protein-mTalin Causes Defects in Actin Organization and Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis and Inhibits Actin Depolymerizing Factor's Actin Depolymerizing Activity in Vitro.
T. Ketelaar, R. G. Anthony, and P. J. Hussey (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3990-3998
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An Arabidopsis ACT2 Dominant-Negative Mutation, which Disturbs F-actin Polymerization, Reveals its Distinctive Function in Root Development.
T. Nishimura, E. Yokota, T. Wada, T. Shimmen, and K. Okada (2003)
Plant Cell Physiol. 44, 1131-1140
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Unstable F-Actin Specifies the Area and Microtubule Direction of Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis Root Hairs.
T. Ketelaar, N. C. A. de Ruijter, and A. M. C. Emons (2003)
PLANT CELL 15, 285-292
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882