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PLANT CELL 14 (12): 3043-3056

Copyright © 2002 by the American Society of Plant Physiologists.

A Phytochrome-Associated Protein Phosphatase 2A Modulates Light Signals in Flowering Time Control in Arabidopsis

Dae-Hwan Kim1,a, Jeong-Gu Kang1,a, Song-Sook Yanga, Kyung-Sook Chung2,a, Pill-Soon Song3,a,b, and Chung-Mo Park2,3,a

a Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Kwangju 500-712, Korea
b Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588

3 To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail pssong{at} or cmpark{at}; fax 82-2-889-1568

Abstract: Reversible protein phosphorylation, which is catalyzed by functionally coupled protein kinases and protein phosphatases, is a major signaling mechanism in eukaryotic cellular functions. The red and far-red light–absorbing phytochrome photoreceptors are light-regulated Ser/Thr-specific protein kinases that regulate diverse photomorphogenic processes in plants. Here, we demonstrate that the phytochromes functionally interact with the catalytic subunit of a Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatase 2A designated FyPP. The interactions were influenced by phosphorylation status and spectral conformation of the phytochromes. Recombinant FyPP efficiently dephosphorylated oat phytochrome A in the presence of Fe2+ or Zn2+ in a spectral form–dependent manner. FyPP was expressed predominantly in floral organs. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants with overexpressed or suppressed FyPP levels exhibited delayed or accelerated flowering, respectively, indicating that FyPP modulates phytochrome-mediated light signals in the timing of flowering. Accordingly, expression patterns of the clock genes in the long-day flowering pathway were altered greatly. These results indicate that a self-regulatory phytochrome kinase-phosphatase coupling is a key signaling component in the photoperiodic control of flowering.

The PP6 Phosphatase Regulates ABI5 Phosphorylation and Abscisic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis.
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PLANT CELL 25, 517-534
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A Protein Phosphatase 2A Catalytic Subunit Modulates Blue Light-Induced Chloroplast Avoidance Movements through Regulating Actin Cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis.
F. Wen, J. Wang, and D. Xing (2012)
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A PP6-Type Phosphatase Holoenzyme Directly Regulates PIN Phosphorylation and Auxin Efflux in Arabidopsis.
M. Dai, C. Zhang, U. Kania, F. Chen, Q. Xue, T. Mccray, G. Li, G. Qin, M. Wakeley, W. Terzaghi, et al. (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 2497-2514
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Protein Phosphatase 2A B55 and A Regulatory Subunits Interact with Nitrate Reductase and Are Essential for Nitrate Reductase Activation.
B. Heidari, P. Matre, D. Nemie-Feyissa, C. Meyer, O. A. Rognli, S. G. Moller, and C. Lillo (2011)
Plant Physiology 156, 165-172
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Characterization of Phytochrome Autophosphorylation in Plant Light Signaling.
Y. J. Han, H. S. Kim, Y. M. Kim, A. Y. Shin, S. S. Lee, S. H. Bhoo, P. S. Song, and J. I. Kim (2010)
Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 596-609
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phytochrome A Mediates Rapid Red Light-Induced Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 in a Low Fluence Response.
Y. Shen, Z. Zhou, S. Feng, J. Li, A. Tan-Wilson, L.-J. Qu, H. Wang, and X. W. Deng (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 494-506
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evolutionary Radiation Pattern of Novel Protein Phosphatases Revealed by Analysis of Protein Data from the Completely Sequenced Genomes of Humans, Green Algae, and Higher Plants.
D. Kerk, G. Templeton, and G. B.G. Moorhead (2008)
Plant Physiology 146, 351-367
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A Rice Phytochrome A in Arabidopsis: The Role of the N-terminus under red and far-red light.
J. Kneissl, T. Shinomura, M. Furuya, and C. Bolle (2008)
Mol Plant 1, 84-102
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Light-regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning of phytochromes.
E. Kevei, E. Schafer, and F. Nagy (2007)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of Phototropic Signaling in Arabidopsis via Phosphorylation State Changes in the Phototropin 1-interacting Protein NPH3.
U. V. Pedmale and E. Liscum (2007)
J. Biol. Chem. 282, 19992-20001
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Protein phosphatase 1 positively regulates stomatal opening in response to blue light in Vicia faba.
A. Takemiya, T. Kinoshita, M. Asanuma, and K.-i. Shimazaki (2006)
PNAS 103, 13549-13554
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 Contains SPX and EXS Domains and Acts in Cryptochrome Signaling.
X. Kang and M. Ni (2006)
PLANT CELL 18, 921-934
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
RED AND FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 2, a RING-Domain Zinc Finger Protein, Mediates Phytochrome-Controlled Seedling Deetiolation Responses.
M. Chen and M. Ni (2006)
Plant Physiology 140, 457-465
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Control of Mammalian Circadian Rhythm by CKI{varepsilon}-Regulated Proteasome-Mediated PER2 Degradation.
E. J. Eide, M. F. Woolf, H. Kang, P. Woolf, W. Hurst, F. Camacho, E. L. Vielhaber, A. Giovanni, and D. M. Virshup (2005)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 2795-2807
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phytochrome Phosphorylation Modulates Light Signaling by Influencing the Protein-Protein Interaction.
J.-I. Kim, Y. Shen, Y.-J. Han, J.-E. Park, D. Kirchenbauer, M.-S. Soh, F. Nagy, E. Schafer, and P.-S. Song (2004)
PLANT CELL 16, 2629-2640
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LAF3, a Novel Factor Required for Normal Phytochrome A Signaling.
P. D. Hare, S. G. Moller, L.-F. Huang, and N.-H. Chua (2003)
Plant Physiology 133, 1592-1604
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Overexpression of a Mutant Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein HFR1, HFR1-{Delta}N105, Activates a Branch Pathway of Light Signaling in Arabidopsis.
K.-Y. Yang, Y.-M. Kim, S. Lee, P.-S. Song, and M.-S. Soh (2003)
Plant Physiology 133, 1630-1642
   Abstract »    Full Text »

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