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PLANT CELL 16 (4): 933-944

Copyright © 2004 by the American Society of Plant Physiologists.

A Nonsymbiotic Root Hair Tip Growth Phenotype in NORK-Mutated Legumes: Implications for Nodulation Factor–Induced Signaling and Formation of a Multifaceted Root Hair Pocket for Bacteria

John J. Esseling, Franck G.P. Lhuissier, and Anne Mie C. Emons1

Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands

1 To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail annemie.emons{at}; fax 31 317 485005.

Abstract: The Medicago truncatula Does not Make Infections (DMI2) mutant is mutated in the nodulation receptor-like kinase, NORK. Here, we report that NORK-mutated legumes of three species show an enhanced touch response to experimental handling, which results in a nonsymbiotic root hair phenotype. When care is taken not to induce this response, DMI2 root hairs respond morphologically like the wild type to nodulation factor (NF). Global NF application results in root hair deformation, and NF spot application induces root hair reorientation or branching, depending on the position of application. In the presence of Sinorhizobium meliloti, DMI2 root hairs make two-dimensional 180° curls but do not entrap bacteria in a three-dimensional pocket because curling stops when the root hair tip touches its own shank. Because DMI2 does not express the promoter of M. truncatula Early Nodulin11 (ENOD11) coupled to ß-glucuronidase upon NF application, we propose a split in NF-induced signaling, with one branch to root hair curling and the other to ENOD11 expression.

Symbiotic Rhizobia Bacteria Trigger a Change in Localization and Dynamics of the Medicago truncatula Receptor Kinase LYK3.
C. H. Haney, B. K. Riely, D. M. Tricoli, D. R. Cook, D. W. Ehrhardt, and S. R. Long (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 2774-2787
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A C Subunit of the Plant Nuclear Factor NF-Y Required for Rhizobial Infection and Nodule Development Affects Partner Selection in the Common Bean-Rhizobium etli Symbiosis.
M. E. Zanetti, F. A. Blanco, M. P. Beker, M. Battaglia, and O. M. Aguilar (2010)
PLANT CELL 22, 4142-4157
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A Small GTPase of the Rab Family Is Required for Root Hair Formation and Preinfection Stages of the Common Bean-Rhizobium Symbiotic Association.
F. A. Blanco, E. Peltzer Meschini, M. E. Zanetti, and O. M. Aguilar (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 2797-2810
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Biotic and Abiotic Stimulation of Root Epidermal Cells Reveals Common and Specific Responses to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.
A. Genre, G. Ortu, C. Bertoldo, E. Martino, and P. Bonfante (2009)
Plant Physiology 149, 1424-1434
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
De Novo Organ Formation from Differentiated Cells: Root Nodule Organogenesis.
M. Crespi and F. Frugier (2008)
Science Signaling 1, re11
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SYMRK, an enigmatic receptor guarding and guiding microbial endosymbioses with plant roots.
M. Holsters (2008)
PNAS 105, 4537-4538
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3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase1 Interacts with NORK and Is Crucial for Nodulation in Medicago truncatula.
Z. Kevei, G. Lougnon, P. Mergaert, G. V. Horvath, A. Kereszt, D. Jayaraman, N. Zaman, F. Marcel, K. Regulski, G. B. Kiss, et al. (2007)
PLANT CELL 19, 3974-3989
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Medicago truncatula Lysine Motif-Receptor-Like Kinase Gene Family Includes NFP and New Nodule-Expressed Genes.
J.-F. Arrighi, A. Barre, B. Ben Amor, A. Bersoult, L. C. Soriano, R. Mirabella, F. de Carvalho-Niebel, E.-P. Journet, M. Gherardi, T. Huguet, et al. (2006)
Plant Physiology 142, 265-279
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
SrSymRK, a plant receptor essential for symbiosome formation.
W. Capoen, S. Goormachtig, R. De Rycke, K. Schroeyers, and M. Holsters (2005)
PNAS 102, 10369-10374
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NodMutDB: a database for genes and mutants involved in symbiosis.
C. Mao, J. Qiu, C. Wang, T. C. Charles, and B. W. S. Sobral (2005)
Bioinformatics 21, 2927-2929
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Cytoskeleton as a Regulator and Target of Biotic Interactions in Plants.
D. Takemoto and A. R. Hardham (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3864-3876
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Pharmacological Evidence That Multiple Phospholipid Signaling Pathways Link Rhizobium Nodulation Factor Perception in Medicago truncatula Root Hairs to Intracellular Responses, Including Ca2+ Spiking and Specific ENOD Gene Expression.
D. Charron, J.-L. Pingret, M. Chabaud, E.-P. Journet, and D. G. Barker (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3582-3593
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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