Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

PNAS 100 (5): 2237-2242

Copyright © 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences.


Identification, classification, and partial characterization of genes in humans and other vertebrates homologous to a fish membrane progestin receptor

Yong Zhu{dagger},{ddagger}, Jason Bond{ddagger}, and Peter Thomas{dagger},§

{dagger}Marine Science Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel View Drive, Port Aransas, TX 78373; and {ddagger}Department of Biology, East Carolina University, 1000 East Fifth Street, Greenville, NC 27858

Received for publication October 9, 2002.

Abstract: Recently we discovered a previously uncharacterized gene with the characteristics of a membrane progestin receptor (mPR) in a fish model, spotted seatrout. Here, we report the identification, cloning, and characteristics of other members of this hitherto unknown family of putative mPRs from several vertebrate species, including human, mouse, pig, Xenopus, zebrafish, and Fugu, with highly conserved nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences and similar structures to the spotted seatrout mPR. The 13 vertebrate genes identified seem to belong to an unknown gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicates these cDNAs comprise three distinct groups (named α, β, and {gamma}) within this gene family. Structural analyses of the translated cDNAs suggest they encode membrane proteins with seven transmembrane domains. The transcript sizes of the human α, β, and {gamma} putative mPR mRNAs varied from 2.8 to 5.8 kb and showed distinct distributions in reproductive, neural, kidney and intestinal tissues, respectively. Recombinant human α, {gamma}, and mouse β proteins produced in an Escherichia coli expression system demonstrated high affinity (Kd = 20–30 nM) saturable binding for progesterone. Further analysis of binding to the {gamma}-subtype revealed binding was specific for progestins and was displaceable, with rapid rates of association and dissociation (t1/2 = 2–8 min). These results suggest this is a new family of steroid receptors unrelated to nuclear steroid receptors, but instead having characteristics of G protein-coupled receptors.

§ To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: thomas{at}

Edited by Ronald W. Estabrook, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, and approved December 17, 2002

This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.

Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. AF315615AF315620 and AY149119–AY1419121).

See commentary on page 2168.

Non-canonical progesterone signaling in granulosa cell function.
J. J. Peluso and J. K. Pru (2014)
Reproduction 147, R169-R178
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hormonal modulators of glial ABCA1 and apoE levels.
J. Fan, Y. Shimizu, J. Chan, A. Wilkinson, A. Ito, P. Tontonoz, E. Dullaghan, L. A. M. Galea, T. Pfeifer, and C. L. Wellington (2013)
J. Lipid Res. 54, 3139-3150
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activation of Enteroendocrine Membrane Progesterone Receptors Promotes Incretin Secretion and Improves Glucose Tolerance in Mice.
G. B. Flock, X. Cao, M. Maziarz, and D. J. Drucker (2013)
Diabetes 62, 283-290
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A caged progesterone analog alters intracellular Ca2+ and flagellar bending in human sperm.
M. R. Servin-Vences, Y. Tatsu, H. Ando, A. Guerrero, N. Yumoto, A. Darszon, and T. Nishigaki (2012)
Reproduction 144, 101-109
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcium Channels in the Development, Maturation, and Function of Spermatozoa.
A. Darszon, T. Nishigaki, C. Beltran, and C. L. Trevino (2011)
Physiol Rev 91, 1305-1355
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cofilin and Slingshot Localization in the Epithelium of Uterine Endometrium Changes During the Menstrual Cycle and in Endometriosis.
K. Morris, I. Ihnatovych, E. Ionetz, J. Reed, A. Braundmeier, and Z. Strakova (2011)
Reproductive Sciences 18, 1014-1024
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Inhibitory Control of Oocyte Maturation in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio): The Role of the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor.
G. Van Der Kraak and A. L. Lister (2011)
Biol Reprod 85, 6-8
   Full Text »    PDF »
Involvement of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Estrogen Inhibition of Oocyte Maturation Mediated Through the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (Gper) in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).
C. Peyton and P. Thomas (2011)
Biol Reprod 85, 42-50
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression, Regulation, and Function of Progesterone Receptors in Bovine Cumulus Oocyte Complexes During In Vitro Maturation.
I. M. Aparicio, M. Garcia-Herreros, L. C. O'Shea, C. Hensey, P. Lonergan, and T. Fair (2011)
Biol Reprod 84, 910-921
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Changes in PGRMC1, a potential progesterone receptor, in human myometrium during pregnancy and labour at term and preterm.
W. Wu, S.-Q. Shi, H.-J. Huang, J. Balducci, and R. E. Garfield (2011)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 17, 233-242
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Novel Role for Progesterone and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 in Regulating Spindle Microtubule Stability During Rat and Human Ovarian Cell Mitosis.
V. Lodde and J. J. Peluso (2011)
Biol Reprod 84, 715-722
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Progesterone Receptors in the Human Pregnancy Uterus: Do they Hold the Key to Birth Timing?.
S. Mesiano, Y. Wang, and E. R. Norwitz (2011)
Reproductive Sciences 18, 6-19
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effect of Decreasing Intraluteal Progesterone on Sensitivity of the Early Porcine Corpus Luteum to the Luteolytic Actions of Prostaglandin F2alpha.
F. J. Diaz, W. Luo, and M. C. Wiltbank (2011)
Biol Reprod 84, 26-33
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Progesterone receptor enhances breast cancer cell motility and invasion via extranuclear activation of focal adhesion kinase.
X. D. Fu, L. Goglia, A. M. Sanchez, M. Flamini, M. S. Giretti, V. Tosi, A. R. Genazzani, and T. Simoncini (2010)
Endocr. Relat. Cancer 17, 431-443
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization and Expression of the Nuclear Progestin Receptor in Zebrafish Gonads and Brain.
R. N. Hanna, S. C.J. Daly, Y. Pang, I. Anglade, O. Kah, P. Thomas, and Y. Zhu (2010)
Biol Reprod 82, 112-122
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Progesterone stimulates mitochondrial activity with subsequent inhibition of apoptosis in MCF-10A benign breast epithelial cells.
M. A. Behera, Q. Dai, R. Garde, C. Saner, E. Jungheim, and T. M. Price (2009)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297, E1089-E1096
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century.
R. J. Denver, P. M. Hopkins, S. D. McCormick, C. R. Propper, L. Riddiford, S. A. Sower, and J. C. Wingfield (2009)
Integr. Comp. Biol. 49, 339-348
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mifepristone acts as progesterone antagonist of non-genomic responses but inhibits phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation in human T cells.
C.H. Chien, J.N. Lai, C.F. Liao, O.Y. Wang, L.M. Lu, M.I. Huang, W.F. Lee, M.C. Shie, and E.J. Chien (2009)
Hum. Reprod. 24, 1968-1975
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Aldosterone Stimulates Elastogenesis in Cardiac Fibroblasts via Mineralocorticoid Receptor-independent Action Involving the Consecutive Activation of G{alpha}13, c-Src, the Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt.
S. Bunda, Y. Wang, T. F. Mitts, P. Liu, S. Arab, M. Arabkhari, and A. Hinek (2009)
J. Biol. Chem. 284, 16633-16647
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dominant Role of Nuclear Progesterone Receptor in the Control of Rat Periovulatory Granulosa Cell Apoptosis.
P. A. Friberg, D.G. J. Larsson, and H. Billig (2009)
Biol Reprod 80, 1160-1167
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Viral Vector-Mediated Overexpression of Estrogen Receptor-{alpha} in Striatum Enhances the Estradiol-Induced Motor Activity in Female Rats and Estradiol-Modulated GABA Release.
K. N. Schultz, S. A. von Esenwein, M. Hu, A. L. Bennett, R. T. Kennedy, S. Musatov, C. D. Toran-Allerand, M. G. Kaplitt, L. J. Young, and J. B. Becker (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 1897-1903
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Non-genomic progesterone actions in female reproduction.
B. Gellersen, M.S. Fernandes, and J.J. Brosens (2009)
Hum. Reprod. Update 15, 119-138
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rapid signaling by steroid receptors.
E. R. Levin (2008)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 295, R1425-R1430
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of glucocorticoids and progestins in inflammatory, autoimmune, and infectious disease.
A. S. Tait, C. L. Butts, and E. M. Sternberg (2008)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 84, 924-931
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.
S. Kohno, Y. Katsu, T. Iguchi, and L. J. Guillette Jr (2008)
Integr. Comp. Biol. 48, 527-534
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NK Cells Expressing a Progesterone Receptor Are Susceptible to Progesterone-Induced Apoptosis.
L. Arruvito, S. Giulianelli, A. C. Flores, N. Paladino, M. Barboza, C. Lanari, and L. Fainboim (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 5746-5753
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Progestogens regulate endothelial actin cytoskeleton and cell movement via the actin-binding protein moesin.
X.-D. Fu, M. Flamini, A. M. Sanchez, L. Goglia, M. S. Giretti, A. R. Genazzani, and T. Simoncini (2008)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 14, 225-234
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ca2+ Homeostasis Regulates Xenopus Oocyte Maturation.
L. Sun, R. Hodeify, S. Haun, A. Charlesworth, A. M. MacNicol, S. Ponnappan, U. Ponnappan, C. Prigent, and K. Machaca (2008)
Biol Reprod 78, 726-735
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression and Regulation of Functional Oxytocin Receptors in Bovine T Lymphocytes.
K. Ndiaye, D. H. Poole, and J. L. Pate (2008)
Biol Reprod 78, 786-793
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Estrogen and progesterone signaling: Genomic and nongenomic actions in domestic ruminants.
F. Stormshak and C. V. Bishop (2008)
J Anim Sci 86, 299-315
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression of membrane progesterone receptors on human T lymphocytes and Jurkat cells and activation of G-proteins by progesterone.
C Dosiou, A E Hamilton, Y Pang, M T Overgaard, S Tulac, J Dong, P Thomas, and L C Giudice (2008)
J. Endocrinol. 196, 67-77
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hormonal regulation of G{alpha}i2 and mPR{alpha} in immortalized human oviductal cell line OE-E6/E7.
K. S. Monkkonen, R. Aflatoonian, K.-F. Lee, W. S.B. Yeung, S.-W. Tsao, J. T. Laitinen, and A. Fazeli (2007)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 13, 845-851
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Has a Receptor for Androstenedione.
M. B Bryan, A. P Scott, and W. Li (2007)
Biol Reprod 77, 688-696
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular traffic at the cell membrane regulates oocyte meiotic arrest.
W. El-Jouni, S. Haun, R. Hodeify, A. Hosein Walker, and K. Machaca (2007)
Development 134, 3307-3315
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immunoendocrine aspects of endometrial function and implantation.
R. G Lea and O. Sandra (2007)
Reproduction 134, 389-404
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Conserved Mechanism for Steroid Receptor Translocation to the Plasma Membrane.
A. Pedram, M. Razandi, R. C. A. Sainson, J. K. Kim, C. C. Hughes, and E. R. Levin (2007)
J. Biol. Chem. 282, 22278-22288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Targeted disruption of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (Gpbar1/M-Bar) in mice.
T. Maruyama, K. Tanaka, J. Suzuki, H. Miyoshi, N. Harada, T. Nakamura, Y. Miyamoto, A. Kanatani, and Y. Tamai (2006)
J. Endocrinol. 191, 197-205
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cell-surface expression, progestin binding, and rapid nongenomic signaling of zebrafish membrane progestin receptors {alpha} and {beta} in transfected cells.
R. Hanna, Y. Pang, P. Thomas, and Y. Zhu (2006)
J. Endocrinol. 190, 247-260
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multiplicity of Progesterone's Actions and Receptors in the Mammalian Ovary.
J. J. Peluso (2006)
Biol Reprod 75, 2-8
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tissue expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in male non-human primates and men..
C M. Luetjens, A. Didolkar, S. Kliesch, W. Paulus, A. Jeibmann, W. Bocker, E. Nieschlag, and M. Simoni (2006)
J. Endocrinol. 189, 529-539
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The effects of sex steroid hormones and interleukin-1-beta on MUC1 expression in endometrial epithelial cell lines..
A W Horne, E-N Lalani, R A Margara, and J O White (2006)
Reproduction 131, 733-742
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Examining the spatio-temporal expression of mRNA encoding the membrane-bound progesterone receptor-alpha isoform in human cervix and myometrium during pregnancy and labour.
N. R. Chapman, M. M. Kennelly, K. A. Harper, G. N. Europe-Finner, and S. C. Robson (2006)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 12, 19-24
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amyloid Precursor Proteins Anchor CPEB to Membranes and Promote Polyadenylation-Induced Translation.
Q. Cao, Y.-S. Huang, M.-C. Kan, and J. D. Richter (2005)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 10930-10939
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immunofluorescent Localization of a Novel Progesterone Receptor(s) in a T47D-Y Breast Cancer Cell Line Lacking Genomic Progesterone Receptor Expression.
T. M. Price, E. L. Hansen, and T. N. Oliver (2005)
Reproductive Sciences 12, 610-616
   Abstract »    PDF »
A novel gene family in Arabidopsis encoding putative heptahelical transmembrane proteins homologous to human adiponectin receptors and progestin receptors.
M.-H. Hsieh and H. M. Goodman (2005)
J. Exp. Bot. 56, 3137-3147
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Apparent receptor-mediated activation of Ca2+-dependent conductive Cl- transport by shark-derived polyaminosterols.
M. N. Chernova, D. H. Vandorpe, J. S. Clark, J. I. Williams, M. A. Zasloff, L. Jiang, and S. L. Alper (2005)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 289, R1644-R1658
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling is required for normal ovarian steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation.
M. Jamnongjit, A. Gill, and S. R. Hammes (2005)
PNAS 102, 16257-16262
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Steroid-Induced Oocyte Maturation in Atlantic Croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) Is Dependent on Activation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signal Transduction Pathway.
M. C. Pace and P. Thomas (2005)
Biol Reprod 73, 988-996
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulated expression of putative membrane progestin receptor homologues in human endometrium and gestational tissues.
M S Fernandes, V Pierron, D Michalovich, S Astle, S Thornton, H Peltoketo, E W-F Lam, B Gellersen, I Huhtaniemi, J Allen, et al. (2005)
J. Endocrinol. 187, 89-101
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chemokine expression is dysregulated in the endometrium of women using progestin-only contraceptives and correlates to elevated recruitment of distinct leukocyte populations.
R. L. Jones, N. B. Morison, N. J. Hannan, H. O.D. Critchley, and L. A. Salamonsen (2005)
Hum. Reprod. 20, 2724-2735
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular and Pharmacological Properties of a Potent and Selective Novel Nonsteroidal Progesterone Receptor Agonist Tanaproget.
Z. Zhang, A. M. Olland, Y. Zhu, J. Cohen, T. Berrodin, S. Chippari, C. Appavu, S. Li, J. Wilhem, R. Chopra, et al. (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 28468-28475
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
G-protein-coupled glucocorticoid receptors on the pituitary cell membrane.
C. Maier, D. Runzler, J. Schindelar, G. Grabner, W. Waldhausl, G. Kohler, and A. Luger (2005)
J. Cell Sci. 118, 3353-3361
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin on the expression of progesterone receptors in human luteal cells in vivo and in vitro.
W C. Duncan, E. Gay, and J. A Maybin (2005)
Reproduction 130, 83-93
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of the G2/M Transition in Xenopus Oocytes by the cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase.
P. A. Eyers, J. Liu, N. R. Hayashi, A. L. Lewellyn, J. Gautier, and J. L. Maller (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 24339-24346
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Progestins Induce Transcriptional Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat3) via a Jak- and Src-Dependent Mechanism in Breast Cancer Cells.
C. Proietti, M. Salatino, C. Rosemblit, R. Carnevale, A. Pecci, A. R. Kornblihtt, A. A. Molinolo, I. Frahm, E. H. Charreau, R. Schillaci, et al. (2005)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 4826-4840
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular characterization of three forms of putative membrane-bound progestin receptors and their tissue-distribution in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.
Y. Kazeto, R. Goto-Kazeto, P. Thomas, and J. M Trant (2005)
J. Mol. Endocrinol. 34, 781-791
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Androgen Receptor Activation by Gs Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells.
E. A. Kasbohm, R. Guo, C. W. Yowell, G. Bagchi, P. Kelly, P. Arora, P. J. Casey, and Y. Daaka (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 11583-11589
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation.
S. E. Martinez, L. Yuan, C. Lacza, H. Ransom, G. M. Mahon, I. P. Whitehead, and L. E. Hake (2005)
Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 1152-1164
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endocrine-like Signaling in Cnidarians: Current Understanding and Implications for Ecophysiology.
A. M. Tarrant (2005)
Integr. Comp. Biol. 45, 201-214
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GABAergic Integration of Progesterone and Androgen Feedback to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons.
S. D. Sullivan and S. M. Moenter (2005)
Biol Reprod 72, 33-41
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Potential role of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 13 in the control of oocyte meiotic maturation.
T. Nedachi and M. Conti (2004)
Development 131, 4987-4998
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The human corpus luteum: which cells have progesterone receptors?.
J. A Maybin and W C. Duncan (2004)
Reproduction 128, 423-431
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Changes in Androgen Receptor Nongenotropic Signaling Correlate with Transition of LNCaP Cells to Androgen Independence.
E. Unni, S. Sun, B. Nan, M. J. McPhaul, B. Cheskis, M. A. Mancini, and M. Marcelli (2004)
Cancer Res. 64, 7156-7168
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reproductive tissue selective actions of progesterone receptors.
B. Mulac-Jericevic and O. M Conneely (2004)
Reproduction 128, 139-146
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
T-cadherin is a receptor for hexameric and high-molecular-weight forms of Acrp30/adiponectin.
C. Hug, J. Wang, N. S. Ahmad, J. S. Bogan, T.-S. Tsao, and H. F. Lodish (2004)
PNAS 101, 10308-10313
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myometrial Progesterone responsiveness and the Control of Human Parturition.
S. Mesiano (2004)
Reproductive Sciences 11, 193-202
   Abstract »    PDF »
Acquisition of Luteolytic Capacity: Changes in Prostaglandin F2{alpha} Regulation of Steroid Hormone Receptors and Estradiol Biosynthesis in Pig Corpora Lutea.
F. J. Diaz and M. C. Wiltbank (2004)
Biol Reprod 70, 1333-1339
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Metalloregulation of yeast membrane steroid receptor homologs.
T. J. Lyons, N. Y. Villa, L. M. Regalla, B. R. Kupchak, A. Vagstad, and D. J. Eide (2004)
PNAS 101, 5506-5511
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of Shc and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in mediating the translocation of estrogen receptor {alpha} to the plasma membrane.
R. X. Song, C. J. Barnes, Z. Zhang, Y. Bao, R. Kumar, and R. J. Santen (2004)
PNAS 101, 2076-2081
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proteins of Multiple Classes May Participate in Nongenomic Steroid Actions.
C. S. Watson and B. Gametchu (2003)
Experimental Biology and Medicine 228, 1272-1281
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Unfolding the Action of Progesterone Receptors.
X. Li and B. W. O'Malley (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 39261-39264
   Full Text »    PDF »
Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) is a glucocorticoid- and progesterone-induced transcription factor in human endometrial stromal cells and myometrial smooth muscle cells.
J. Fahnenstich, A. Nandy, K. Milde-Langosch, T. Schneider-Merck, N. Walther, and B. Gellersen (2003)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 9, 611-623
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION: Fishing at the Cell Surface.
J. L. Maller (2003)
Science 300, 594-595
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The further redefining of steroid-mediated signaling.
S. R. Hammes (2003)
PNAS 100, 2168-2170
   Full Text »    PDF »
Cloning, expression, and characterization of a membrane progestin receptor and evidence it is an intermediary in meiotic maturation of fish oocytes.
Y. Zhu, C. D. Rice, Y. Pang, M. Pace, and P. Thomas (2003)
PNAS 100, 2231-2236
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882