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PNAS 100 (9): 5211-5216

Copyright © 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences.


BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES / CELL BIOLOGY

Fas-associated death domain protein interacts with methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4: A potential link between genome surveillance and apoptosis

Robert A. Screaton*, Stephan Kiessling*, Owen J. Sansom{dagger}, Catherine B. Millar{ddagger}, Kathryn Maddison{dagger}, Adrian Bird{ddagger}, Alan R. Clarke{dagger}, and Steven M. Frisch*,§

*The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037; {dagger}Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 911, Cardiff CF10 3US, United Kingdom; and {ddagger}Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, United Kingdom

Accepted for publication February 28, 2003.

Received for publication January 22, 2003.

Abstract: Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) is an adaptor protein bridging death receptors with initiator caspases. Thus, its function and localization are assumed to be cytoplasmic, although the localization of endogenous FADD has not been reported. Surprisingly, the data presented here demonstrate that FADD is mainly nuclear in several adherent cell lines. Its accumulation in the nucleus and export to the cytoplasm required the phosphorylation site Ser-194, which was also required for its interaction with the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein exportin-5. Within the nucleus, FADD interacted with the methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4), which excises thymine from GT mismatches in methylated regions of chromatin. The MBD4-interacting mismatch repair factor MLH1 was also found in a complex with FADD. The FADD–MBD4 interaction involved the death effector domain of FADD and a region of MBD4 adjacent to the glycosylase domain. The FADD-binding region of MBD4 was downstream of a frameshift mutation that occurs in a significant fraction of human colorectal carcinomas. Consistent with the idea that MBD4 can signal to an apoptotic effector, MBD4 regulated DNA damage-, Fas ligand-, and cell detachment-induced apoptosis. The nuclear localization of FADD and its interaction with a genome surveillance/DNA repair protein that can regulate apoptosis suggests a novel function of FADD distinct from direct participation in death receptor signaling complexes.


§ To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: sfrisch{at}burnham.org.

Communicated by Erkki Ruoslahti, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA


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