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Science 297 (5579): 256-259

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Leg Patterning Driven by Proximal-Distal Interactions and EGFR Signaling

M. I. Galindo, S. A. Bishop, S. Greig, J. P. Couso*

wingless and decapentaplegic signaling establishes the proximal-distal axis of Drosophila legs by activating the expression of genes such as Distalless and dachshund in broad proximal-distal domains during early leg development. However, here we show that wingless and decapentaplegic are not required throughout all of proximal-distal development. The tarsus, which has been proposed to be an ancestral structure, is instead defined by the activity of Distalless, dachshund, and a distal gradient of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras signaling. Our results uncover a mechanism for appendage patterning directed by genes expressed in proximal-distal domains and possibly conserved in other arthropods and vertebrates.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK.
*   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: J.P.Couso{at}

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C. Molnar, A. Lopez-Varea, R. Hernandez, and J. F. de Celis (2006)
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