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Science 297 (5582): 815-819

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

White Collar-1, a Circadian Blue Light Photoreceptor, Binding to the frequency Promoter

Allan C. Froehlich, Yi Liu,* Jennifer J. Loros,dagger Jay C. Dunlapdagger

In the fungus Neurospora crassa, the blue light photoreceptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) have not been identified. We examined light signaling by exploiting the light sensitivity of the Neurospora biological clock, specifically the rapid induction by light of the clock component frequency (frq). Light induction of frq is transcriptionally controlled and requires two cis-acting elements (LREs) in the frq promoter. Both LREs are bound by a White Collar-1 (WC-1)/White Collar-2 (WC-2)-containing complex (WCC), and light causes decreased mobility of the WCC bound to the LREs. The use of in vitro-translated WC-1 and WC-2 confirmed that WC-1, with flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor, is the blue light photoreceptor that mediates light input to the circadian system through direct binding (with WC-2) to the frq promoter.

Departments of 1Genetics and 2Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.
*   Present address: Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

dagger    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jennifer.loros{at} (J.J.L.) and jay.c.dunlap{at} (J.C.D)

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Melanopsin (Opn4) Requirement for Normal Light-Induced Circadian Phase Shifting.
S. Panda, T. K. Sato, A. M. Castrucci, M. D. Rollag, W. J. DeGrip, J. B. Hogenesch, I. Provencio, and S. A. Kay (2002)
Science 298, 2213-2216
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Origins of Circadian Rhythmicity.
E. Rosato and C. P. Kyriacou (2002)
J Biol Rhythms 17, 506-511
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CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS: Enhanced: A White Collar Protein Senses Blue Light.
H. Linden (2002)
Science 297, 777-778
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White Collar-1, a DNA Binding Transcription Factor and a Light Sensor.
Q. He, P. Cheng, Y. Yang, L. Wang, K. H. Gardner, and Y. Liu (2002)
Science 297, 840-843
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