Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 298 (5594): 799-804

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Tong Ihn Lee,1* Nicola J. Rinaldi,12* François Robert,1* Duncan T. Odom,1 Ziv Bar-Joseph,3 Georg K. Gerber,3 Nancy M. Hannett,1 Christopher T. Harbison,12 Craig M. Thompson,1dagger Itamar Simon,1 Julia Zeitlinger,1 Ezra G. Jennings,12 Heather L. Murray,1 D. Benjamin Gordon,1 Bing Ren,1ddagger John J. Wyrick,1§ Jean-Bosco Tagne,1 Thomas L. Volkert,1 Ernest Fraenkel,1 David K. Gifford,3 Richard A. Young12parallel

We have determined how most of the transcriptional regulators encoded in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae associate with genes across the genome in living cells. Just as maps of metabolic networks describe the potential pathways that may be used by a cell to accomplish metabolic processes, this network of regulator-gene interactions describes potential pathways yeast cells can use to regulate global gene expression programs. We use this information to identify network motifs, the simplest units of network architecture, and demonstrate that an automated process can use motifs to assemble a transcriptional regulatory network structure. Our results reveal that eukaryotic cellular functions are highly connected through networks of transcriptional regulators that regulate other transcriptional regulators.

1 Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
2 Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
3 MIT Laboratory of Computer Science, 200 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
*   These authors contributed equally to this work.

dagger    Present address: Akceli Inc., 1 Hampshire Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

ddagger    Present address: Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

§   Present address: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

parallel    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: young{at}

The TAF9 C-Terminal Conserved Region Domain Is Required for SAGA and TFIID Promoter Occupancy To Promote Transcriptional Activation.
M. Saint, S. Sawhney, I. Sinha, R. P. Singh, R. Dahiya, A. Thakur, R. Siddharthan, and K. Natarajan (2014)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 34, 1547-1563
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synthetic incoherent feedforward circuits show adaptation to the amount of their genetic template.
L. Bleris, Z. Xie, D. Glass, A. Adadey, E. Sontag, and Y. Benenson (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 7, 519
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cell cycle regulation by feed-forward loops coupling transcription and phosphorylation.
A. Csikasz-Nagy, O. Kapuy, A. Toth, C. Pal, L. J. Jensen, F. Uhlmann, J. J. Tyson, and B. Novak (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 5, 236
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Backup in gene regulatory networks explains differences between binding and knockout results.
A. Gitter, Z. Siegfried, M. Klutstein, O. Fornes, B. Oliva, I. Simon, and Z. Bar-Joseph (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 5, 276
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prevalence of transcription promoters within archaeal operons and coding sequences.
T. Koide, D. J. Reiss, J. C. Bare, W. L. Pang, M. T. Facciotti, A. K. Schmid, M. Pan, B. Marzolf, P. T. Van, F.-Y. Lo, et al. (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 5, 285
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genomic analysis reveals a tight link between transcription factor dynamics and regulatory network architecture.
R. Jothi, S. Balaji, A. Wuster, J. A. Grochow, J. Gsponer, T. M. Przytycka, L. Aravind, and M. M. Babu (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 5, 294
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Revealing a signaling role of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate in yeast.
L. A. Cowart, M. Shotwell, M. L. Worley, A. J. Richards, D. J. Montefusco, Y. A. Hannun, and X. Lu (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 6, 349
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dynamic CRM occupancy reflects a temporal map of developmental progression.
B. Wilczynski and E. E. M. Furlong (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 6, 383
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional regulation is only half the story.
J. B. Plotkin (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 6, 406
   Full Text »    PDF »
Epistatic relationships reveal the functional organization of yeast transcription factors.
J. Zheng, J. J. Benschop, M. Shales, P. Kemmeren, J. Greenblatt, G. Cagney, F. Holstege, H. Li, and N. J. Krogan (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 6, 420
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Unraveling condition-dependent networks of transcription factors that control metabolic pathway activity in yeast.
S.-M. Fendt, A. P. Oliveira, S. Christen, P. Picotti, R. C. Dechant, and U. Sauer (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 6, 432
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The incoherent feed-forward loop can generate non-monotonic input functions for genes.
S. Kaplan, A. Bren, E. Dekel, and U. Alon (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 4, 203
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High-order combination effects and biological robustness.
J. Lehar, A. Krueger, G. Zimmermann, and A. Borisy (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 4, 215
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Principles of microRNA regulation of a human cellular signaling network.
Q. Cui, Z. Yu, E. O. Purisima, and E. Wang (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 2, 46
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Global gene expression of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in response to changes in nitrogen availability.
A. C. Tolonen, J. Aach, D. Lindell, Z. I. Johnson, T. Rector, R. Steen, G. M. Church, and S. W. Chisholm (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 2, 53
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Communication between levels of transcriptional control improves robustness and adaptivity.
A. M. Tsankov, C. R. Brown, M. C. Yu, M. Z. Win, P. A. Silver, and J. M. Casolari (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 2, 65
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Noise in timing and precision of gene activities in a genetic cascade.
A. Amir, O. Kobiler, A. Rokney, A. B. Oppenheim, and J. Stavans (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 71
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
How to infer gene networks from expression profiles.
M. Bansal, V. Belcastro, A. Ambesi-Impiombato, and D. di Bernardo (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 78
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chemical combination effects predict connectivity in biological systems.
J. Lehar, G. R. Zimmermann, A. S. Krueger, R. A. Molnar, J. T. Ledell, A. M. Heilbut, G. F. Short III, L. C. Giusti, G. P. Nolan, O. A. Magid, et al. (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 80
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prediction of phenotype and gene expression for combinations of mutations.
G. W. Carter, S. Prinz, C. Neou, J. P. Shelby, B. Marzolf, V. Thorsson, and T. Galitski (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 96
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inferring condition-specific transcription factor function from DNA binding and gene expression data.
R. P. McCord, M. F. Berger, A. A. Philippakis, and M. L. Bulyk (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 100
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pathway redundancy and protein essentiality revealed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae interaction networks.
I. Ulitsky and R. Shamir (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 104
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional responses to fatty acid are coordinated by combinatorial control.
J. J. Smith, S. A. Ramsey, M. Marelli, B. Marzolf, D. Hwang, R. A. Saleem, R. A. Rachubinski, and J. D. Aitchison (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 115
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A coherent feed-forward loop with a SUM input function prolongs flagella expression in Escherichia coli.
S. Kalir, S. Mangan, and U. Alon (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 1, 2005.0006
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression dynamics of a cellular metabolic network.
P. Kharchenko, G. M. Church, and D. Vitkup (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 1, 2005.0016
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The promoters of human cell cycle genes integrate signals from two tumor suppressive pathways during cellular transformation.
Y. Tabach, M. Milyavsky, I. Shats, R. Brosh, O. Zuk, A. Yitzhaky, R. Mantovani, E. Domany, V. Rotter, and Y. Pilpel (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 1, 2005.0022
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human hepatocytes.
D. T. Odom, R. D. Dowell, E. S. Jacobsen, L. Nekludova, P. A. Rolfe, T. W. Danford, D. K. Gifford, E. Fraenkel, G. I. Bell, and R. A. Young (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 2, 2006.0017
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oscillations and variability in the p53 system.
N. Geva-Zatorsky, N. Rosenfeld, S. Itzkovitz, R. Milo, A. Sigal, E. Dekel, T. Yarnitzky, Y. Liron, P. Polak, G. Lahav, et al. (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 2, 2006.0033
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Periodic mRNA synthesis and degradation co-operate during cell cycle gene expression.
P. Eser, C. Demel, K. C. Maier, B. Schwalb, N. Pirkl, D. E. Martin, P. Cramer, and A. Tresch (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 10, 717
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Topology and Control of the Cell-Cycle-Regulated Transcriptional Circuitry.
S. B. Haase and C. Wittenberg (2014)
Genetics 196, 65-90
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Searching for repetitions in biological networks: methods, resources and tools.
S. Panni and S. E. Rombo (2013)
Brief Bioinform
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integration of New Genes into Cellular Networks, and Their Structural Maturation.
G. Abrusan (2013)
Genetics 195, 1407-1417
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A comprehensive gene regulatory network for the diauxic shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
L. Geistlinger, G. Csaba, S. Dirmeier, R. Kuffner, and R. Zimmer (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, 8452-8463
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks.
T. R. Hughes and C. G. de Boer (2013)
Genetics 195, 9-36
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential Regulation of White-Opaque Switching by Individual Subunits of Candida albicans Mediator.
A. Zhang, Z. Liu, and L. C. Myers (2013)
Eukaryot. Cell 12, 1293-1304
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The RNA-Binding Protein Whi3 Is a Key Regulator of Developmental Signaling and Ploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
S. Schladebeck and H.-U. Mosch (2013)
Genetics 195, 73-86
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The evolution of complex gene regulation by low-specificity binding sites.
A. J. Stewart and J. B. Plotkin (2013)
Proc R Soc B 280, 20131313
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protocell design through modular compartmentalization.
D. Miller, P. J. Booth, J. M. Seddon, R. H. Templer, R. V. Law, R. Woscholski, O. Ces, and L. M. C. Barter (2013)
J R Soc Interface 10, 20130496
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mapping functional transcription factor networks from gene expression data.
B. C. Haynes, E. J. Maier, M. H. Kramer, P. I. Wang, H. Brown, and M. R. Brent (2013)
Genome Res. 23, 1319-1328
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Characterization of Fission Yeast Transcription Factors by Overexpression Analysis.
L. Vachon, J. Wood, E.-J. G. Kwon, A. Laderoute, K. Chatfield-Reed, J. Karagiannis, and G. Chua (2013)
Genetics 194, 873-884
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The cost of sensitive response and accurate adaptation in networks with an incoherent type-1 feed-forward loop.
G. Lan and Y. Tu (2013)
J R Soc Interface 10, 20130489
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Acetyl-CoA induces transcription of the key G1 cyclin CLN3 to promote entry into the cell division cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
L. Shi and B. P. Tu (2013)
PNAS 110, 7318-7323
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Temporal mapping of CEBPA and CEBPB binding during liver regeneration reveals dynamic occupancy and specific regulatory codes for homeostatic and cell cycle gene batteries.
J. S. Jakobsen, J. Waage, N. Rapin, H. C. Bisgaard, F. S. Larsen, and B. T. Porse (2013)
Genome Res. 23, 592-603
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nanobody(R)-based chromatin immunoprecipitation/micro-array analysis for genome-wide identification of transcription factor DNA binding sites.
T. Nguyen-Duc, E. Peeters, S. Muyldermans, D. Charlier, and G. Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, e59
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Networks and pathways to guide genomic selection.
W. M. Snelling, R. A. Cushman, J. W. Keele, C. Maltecca, M. G. Thomas, M. R. S. Fortes, and A. Reverter (2013)
J Anim Sci 91, 537-552
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An effective framework for reconstructing gene regulatory networks from genetical genomics data.
R. J. Flassig, S. Heise, K. Sundmacher, and S. Klamt (2013)
Bioinformatics 29, 246-254
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reverse-engineering the genetic circuitry of a cancer cell with predicted intervention in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
L. Vallat, C. A. Kemper, N. Jung, M. Maumy-Bertrand, F. Bertrand, N. Meyer, A. Pocheville, J. W. Fisher III, J. G. Gribben, and S. Bahram (2013)
PNAS 110, 459-464
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Using topology to tame the complex biochemistry of genetic networks.
M. Thattai (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc A 371, 20110548
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Enigmatic Conservation of a Rap1 Binding Site in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMR-E Silencer.
L. Teytelman, E. A. O. Nishimura, B. Ozaydin, M. B. Eisen, and J. Rine (2012)
g3 2, 1555-1562
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Why Transcription Factor Binding Sites Are Ten Nucleotides Long.
A. J. Stewart, S. Hannenhalli, and J. B. Plotkin (2012)
Genetics 192, 973-985
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Zinc Finger Proteins Mxr1p and Repressor of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (ROP) Have the Same DNA Binding Specificity but Regulate Methanol Metabolism Antagonistically in Pichia pastoris.
N. V. Kumar and P. N. Rangarajan (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 34465-34473
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
One Hand Clapping: detection of condition-specific transcription factor interactions from genome-wide gene activity data.
S. Dumcke, M. Seizl, S. Etzold, N. Pirkl, D. E. Martin, P. Cramer, and A. Tresch (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 8883-8892
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Toward the identification and regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI3 regulon.
G. Monke, M. Seifert, J. Keilwagen, M. Mohr, I. Grosse, U. Hahnel, A. Junker, B. Weisshaar, U. Conrad, H. Baumlein, et al. (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 8240-8254
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Considerations for creating and annotating the budding yeast Genome Map at SGD: a progress report.
E. T. Chan and J. M. Cherry (2012)
Database 2012, bar057
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The magnitude and colour of noise in genetic negative feedback systems.
M. Voliotis and C. G. Bowsher (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 7084-7095
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional Network Structure Has Little Effect on the Rate of Regulatory Evolution in Yeast.
A. Kopp and L. M. McIntyre (2012)
Mol. Biol. Evol. 29, 1899-1905
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Combinatorial control of diverse metabolic and physiological functions by transcriptional regulators of the yeast sulfur assimilation pathway.
A. A. Petti, R. S. McIsaac, O. Ho-Shing, H. J. Bussemaker, and D. Botstein (2012)
Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 3008-3024
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Response to the BMP gradient requires highly combinatorial inputs from multiple patterning systems in the Drosophila embryo.
H.-L. Liang, M. Xu, Y.-C. Chuang, and C. Rushlow (2012)
Development 139, 1956-1964
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evaluation and Properties of the Budding Yeast Phosphoproteome.
G. D. Amoutzias, Y. He, K. S. Lilley, Y. Van de Peer, and S. G. Oliver (2012)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11, M111.009555
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterizing the roles of Met31 and Met32 in coordinating Met4-activated transcription in the absence of Met30.
E. Carrillo, G. Ben-Ari, J. Wildenhain, M. Tyers, D. Grammentz, and T. A. Lee (2012)
Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 1928-1942
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
HOT DNAs: a novel class of developmental enhancers.
E. Farley and M. Levine (2012)
Genes & Dev. 26, 873-876
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evolution of Double Positive Autoregulatory Feedback Loops in CYCLOIDEA2 Clade Genes Is Associated with the Origin of Floral Zygomorphy.
X. Yang, H.-B. Pang, B.-L. Liu, Z.-J. Qiu, Q. Gao, L. Wei, Y. Dong, and Y.-Z. Wang (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 1834-1847
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Critical Role of N-terminal End-localized Nuclear Export Signal in Regulation of Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2) Subcellular Localization and Transcriptional Activity.
C.-C. Hsu and C.-D. Hu (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 8621-8632
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Biological network motif detection: principles and practice.
E. Wong, B. Baur, S. Quader, and C.-H. Huang (2012)
Brief Bioinform 13, 202-215
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
De novo motif discovery facilitates identification of interactions between transcription factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
M.-J. M. Chen, L.-C. Chou, T.-T. Hsieh, D.-D. Lee, K.-W. Liu, C.-Y. Yu, Y.-J. Oyang, H.-K. Tsai, and C.-Y. Chen (2012)
Bioinformatics 28, 701-708
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of Gal4-directed transcription activation using Tra1 mutants selectively defective for interaction with Gal4.
L. Lin, L. Chamberlain, L. J. Zhu, and M. R. Green (2012)
PNAS 109, 1997-2002
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Metabolism and Regulation of Glycerolipids in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
S. A. Henry, S. D. Kohlwein, and G. M. Carman (2012)
Genetics 190, 317-349
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
YeTFaSCo: a database of evaluated yeast transcription factor sequence specificities.
C. G. de Boer and T. R. Hughes (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, D169-D179
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional Regulation and the Diversification of Metabolism in Wine Yeast Strains.
D. Rossouw, D. Jacobson, and F. F. Bauer (2012)
Genetics 190, 251-261
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
How to infer gene networks from expression profiles, revisited.
C. A. Penfold and D. L. Wild (2011)
Interface Focus 1, 857-870
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Target of Rapamycin (TOR) in Nutrient Signaling and Growth Control.
R. Loewith and M. N. Hall (2011)
Genetics 189, 1177-1201
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Compensation for differences in gene copy number among yeast ribosomal proteins is encoded within their promoters.
D. Zeevi, E. Sharon, M. Lotan-Pompan, Y. Lubling, Z. Shipony, T. Raveh-Sadka, L. Keren, M. Levo, A. Weinberger, and E. Segal (2011)
Genome Res. 21, 2114-2128
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An efficient network querying method based on conditional random fields.
Q. Huang, L.-Y. Wu, and X.-S. Zhang (2011)
Bioinformatics 27, 3173-3178
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural and functional organization of RNA regulons in the post-transcriptional regulatory network of yeast.
A. Joshi, Y. Van de Peer, and T. Michoel (2011)
Nucleic Acids Res. 39, 9108-9117
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ANAT: A Tool for Constructing and Analyzing Functional Protein Networks.
N. Yosef, E. Zalckvar, A. D. Rubinstein, M. Homilius, N. Atias, L. Vardi, I. Berman, H. Zur, A. Kimchi, E. Ruppin, et al. (2011)
Science Signaling 4, pl1
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Motifs emerge from function in model gene regulatory networks.
Z. Burda, A. Krzywicki, O. C. Martin, and M. Zagorski (2011)
PNAS 108, 17263-17268
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuronal homeostasis: time for a change?.
T. O'Leary and D. J. A. Wyllie (2011)
J. Physiol. 589, 4811-4826
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Two Proteins with Different Functions Are Derived from the KlHEM13 Gene.
A. Vizoso Vazquez, M. Blanco, J. Zaborowska, P. Soengas, M. I. Gonzalez-Siso, M. Becerra, E. Rodriguez-Belmonte, and M. E. Cerdan (2011)
Eukaryot. Cell 10, 1331-1339
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fine-tuning of the Msn2/4-mediated yeast stress responses as revealed by systematic deletion of Msn2/4 partners.
A. Sadeh, N. Movshovich, M. Volokh, L. Gheber, and A. Aharoni (2011)
Mol. Biol. Cell 22, 3127-3138
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LLM3D: a log-linear modeling-based method to predict functional gene regulatory interactions from genome-wide expression data.
G. Geeven, H. D. MacGillavry, R. Eggers, M. M. Sassen, J. Verhaagen, A. B. Smit, M. C. M. de Gunst, and R. E. van Kesteren (2011)
Nucleic Acids Res. 39, 5313-5327
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Physical Module Networks: an integrative approach for reconstructing transcription regulation.
N. Novershtern, A. Regev, and N. Friedman (2011)
Bioinformatics 27, i177-i185
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Large-scale learning of combinatorial transcriptional dynamics from gene expression.
H. M. S. Asif and G. Sanguinetti (2011)
Bioinformatics 27, 1277-1283
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Yeast response and tolerance to polyamine toxicity involving the drug : H+ antiporter Qdr3 and the transcription factors Yap1 and Gcn4.
M. C. Teixeira, T. R. Cabrito, Z. M. Hanif, R. C. Vargas, S. Tenreiro, and I. Sa-Correia (2011)
Microbiology 157, 945-956
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diverse protein kinase interactions identified by protein microarrays reveal novel connections between cellular processes.
J. Fasolo, A. Sboner, M. G. F. Sun, H. Yu, R. Chen, D. Sharon, P. M. Kim, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder (2011)
Genes & Dev. 25, 767-778
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modular analysis of the probabilistic genetic interaction network.
L. Hou, L. Wang, M. Qian, D. Li, C. Tang, Y. Zhu, M. Deng, and F. Li (2011)
Bioinformatics 27, 853-859
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MicroRNAs and atrial fibrillation: new fundamentals.
Z. Wang, Y. Lu, and B. Yang (2011)
Cardiovasc Res 89, 710-721
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sequential Recruitment of SAGA and TFIID in a Genomic Response to DNA Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
S. Ghosh and B. F. Pugh (2011)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 31, 190-202
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882