Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 298 (5599): 1797-1800

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Direct Link Between mhc Polymorphism, T Cell Avidity, and Diversity in Immune Defense

Ilhem Messaoudi,12 Jose A. Guevara Patiño,2 Ruben Dyall,2* Joël LeMaoult,2* Janko Nikolich-Žugich12dagger

Major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-encoded molecules govern immune responses by presenting antigenic peptides to T cells. The extensive polymorphism of genes encoding these molecules is believed to enhance immune defense by broadening the array of antigenic peptides available for T cell recognition, but direct evidence supporting the importance of this mechanism in combating pathogens is limited. Here we link mhc polymorphism-driven diversification of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) repertoire to the generation of high-avidity, protective antiviral T cells and to superior antiviral defense. Thus, much of the beneficial effect of the mhc polymorphism in immune defense may be due to its critical influence on the properties of the selected CTL repertoire.

1 Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute and the Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.
2 Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
*   Present addresses of these authors, contact J.N.-Ž.

dagger    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: nikolich{at}ohsu.edu.



THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Age-Related Decrease in TCR Repertoire Diversity Measured with Deep and Normalized Sequence Profiling.
O. V. Britanova, E. V. Putintseva, M. Shugay, E. M. Merzlyak, M. A. Turchaninova, D. B. Staroverov, D. A. Bolotin, S. Lukyanov, E. A. Bogdanova, I. Z. Mamedov, et al. (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 2689-2698
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reproducible selection of high avidity CD8+ T-cell clones following secondary acute virus infection.
T. Cukalac, J. Chadderton, A. Handel, P. C. Doherty, S. J. Turner, P. G. Thomas, and N. L. La Gruta (2014)
PNAS 111, 1485-1490
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Hydrogen Peroxide-Inactivated Virus Vaccine Elicits Humoral and Cellular Immunity and Protects against Lethal West Nile Virus Infection in Aged Mice.
A. K. Pinto, J. M. Richner, E. A. Poore, P. P. Patil, I. J. Amanna, M. K. Slifka, and M. S. Diamond (2013)
J. Virol. 87, 1926-1936
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CD8+ TCR Repertoire Formation Is Guided Primarily by the Peptide Component of the Antigenic Complex.
D. Koning, A. I. Costa, I. Hoof, J. J. Miles, N. M. Nanlohy, K. Ladell, K. K. Matthews, V. Venturi, I. M. M. Schellens, J. A. M. Borghans, et al. (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 931-939
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ecological analysis of antigen-specific CTL repertoires defines the relationship between naive and immune T-cell populations.
P. G. Thomas, A. Handel, P. C. Doherty, and N. L. La Gruta (2013)
PNAS 110, 1839-1844
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A sequence-based approach demonstrates that balancing selection in classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci is asymmetric.
P. G. Bronson, S. J. Mack, H. A. Erlich, and M. Slatkin (2013)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 22, 252-261
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Viral antigen density and confinement time regulate the reactivity pattern of CD4 T-cell responses to vaccinia virus infection.
V. Vanguri, C. C. Govern, R. Smith, and E. S. Huseby (2013)
PNAS 110, 288-293
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural features underlying T-cell receptor sensitivity to concealed MHC class I micropolymorphisms.
G. B. Stewart-Jones, P. Simpson, P. Anton van der Merwe, P. Easterbrook, A. J. McMichael, S. L. Rowland-Jones, E. Y. Jones, and G. M. Gillespie (2012)
PNAS 109, E3483-E3492
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lifelong Persistent Viral Infection Alters the Naive T Cell Pool, Impairing CD8 T Cell Immunity in Late Life.
M. J. Smithey, G. Li, V. Venturi, M. P. Davenport, and J. Nikolich-Zugich (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 5356-5366
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A TCR Affinity Threshold Regulates Memory CD4 T Cell Differentiation following Vaccination.
C. K. Baumgartner, H. Yagita, and L. P. Malherbe (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 2309-2317
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
T Cell Receptor {alpha}{beta} Diversity Inversely Correlates with Pathogen-Specific Antibody Levels in Human Cytomegalovirus Infection.
G. C. Wang, P. Dash, J. A. McCullers, P. C. Doherty, and P. G. Thomas (2012)
Science Translational Medicine 4, 128ra42
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Escape from CD8+ T Cell Response by Natural Variants of an Immunodominant Epitope from Theileria parva Is Predominantly Due to Loss of TCR Recognition.
T. K. Connelley, N. D. MacHugh, R. Pelle, W. Weir, and W. I. Morrison (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 5910-5920
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Major Histocompatibility Complex-Dependent Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Repertoire and Functional Avidity Contribute to Strain-Specific Disease Susceptibility after Murine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.
B. Jessen, S. Faller, C. D. Krempl, and S. Ehl (2011)
J. Virol. 85, 10135-10143
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High-Functional-Avidity Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to HLA-B-Restricted Gag-Derived Epitopes Associated with Relative HIV Control.
C. T. Berger, N. Frahm, D. A. Price, B. Mothe, M. Ghebremichael, K. L. Hartman, L. M. Henry, J. M. Brenchley, L. E. Ruff, V. Venturi, et al. (2011)
J. Virol. 85, 9334-9345
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Single cell analysis reveals similar functional competence of dominant and nondominant CD8 T-cell clonotypes.
D. E. Speiser, S. Wieckowski, B. Gupta, E. M. Iancu, P. Baumgaertner, L. Baitsch, O. Michielin, P. Romero, and N. Rufer (2011)
PNAS 108, 15318-15323
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nonrandom attrition of the naive CD8+ T-cell pool with aging governed by T-cell receptor:pMHC interactions.
B. D. Rudd, V. Venturi, G. Li, P. Samadder, J. M. Ertelt, S. S. Way, M. P. Davenport, and J. Nikolich-Zugich (2011)
PNAS 108, 13694-13699
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cytomegalovirus-Specific T Cell Immunity Is Maintained in Immunosenescent Rhesus Macaques.
L. Cicin-Sain, A. W. Sylwester, S. I. Hagen, D. C. Siess, N. Currier, A. W. Legasse, M. B. Fischer, C. W. Koudelka, M. K. Axthelm, J. Nikolich-Zugich, et al. (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 1722-1732
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diverse Peptide Presentation of Rhesus Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Mamu-A*02 Revealed by Two Peptide Complex Structures and Insights into Immune Escape of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus.
J. Liu, L. Dai, J. Qi, F. Gao, Y. Feng, W. Liu, J. Yan, and G. F. Gao (2011)
J. Virol. 85, 7372-7383
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Two Distinct Conformations of a Rinderpest Virus Epitope Presented by Bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I N*01801: a Host Strategy To Present Featured Peptides.
X. Li, J. Liu, J. Qi, F. Gao, Q. Li, X. Li, N. Zhang, C. Xia, and G. F. Gao (2011)
J. Virol. 85, 6038-6048
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Large TCR Diversity of Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells Provides the Mechanistic Basis for Massive TCR Renewal after Antigen Exposure.
I. Miconnet, A. Marrau, A. Farina, P. Taffe, S. Vigano, A. Harari, and G. Pantaleo (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 7039-7049
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural basis for enabling T-cell receptor diversity within biased virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses.
E. B. Day, C. Guillonneau, S. Gras, N. L. La Gruta, D. A. A. Vignali, P. C. Doherty, A. W. Purcell, J. Rossjohn, and S. J. Turner (2011)
PNAS 108, 9536-9541
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effect of MHC Class I Diversification on Influenza Epitope-Specific CD8+ T Cell Precursor Frequency and Subsequent Effector Function.
E. B. Day, K. L. Charlton, N. L. La Gruta, P. C. Doherty, and S. J. Turner (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 6319-6328
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evolution of the Antigen-Specific CD8+ TCR Repertoire across the Life Span: Evidence for Clonal Homogenization of the Old TCR Repertoire.
B. D. Rudd, V. Venturi, M. P. Davenport, and J. Nikolich-Zugich (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 2056-2064
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
T Cell Receptor Clonotype Influences Epitope Hierarchy in the CD8+ T Cell Response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.
P. Billam, K. L. Bonaparte, J. Liu, T. J. Ruckwardt, M. Chen, A. B. Ryder, R. Wang, P. Dash, P. G. Thomas, and B. S. Graham (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 4829-4841
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vaccination Reduces Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Sequence Reversion through Enhanced Viral Control.
E. R. Manuel, W. W. Yeh, H. Balachandran, R. H. Clarke, M. A. Lifton, and N. L. Letvin (2010)
J. Virol. 84, 12782-12789
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Novel Immunodominant Peptide Presentation Strategy: a Featured HLA-A*2402-Restricted Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitope Stabilized by Intrachain Hydrogen Bonds from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein.
J. Liu, P. Wu, F. Gao, J. Qi, A. Kawana-Tachikawa, J. Xie, C. J. Vavricka, A. Iwamoto, T. Li, and G. F. Gao (2010)
J. Virol. 84, 11849-11857
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dacarbazine Treatment before Peptide Vaccination Enlarges T-Cell Repertoire Diversity of Melan-A-Specific, Tumor-Reactive CTL in Melanoma Patients.
B. Palermo, D. Del Bello, A. Sottini, F. Serana, C. Ghidini, N. Gualtieri, V. Ferraresi, C. Catricala, F. Belardelli, E. Proietti, et al. (2010)
Cancer Res. 70, 7084-7092
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Constraints within major histocompatibility complex class I restricted peptides: Presentation and consequences for T-cell recognition.
A. Theodossis, C. Guillonneau, A. Welland, L. K. Ely, C. S. Clements, N. A. Williamson, A. I. Webb, J. A. Wilce, R. J. Mulder, M. A. Dunstone, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 5534-5539
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diversity of the CD8+ T Cell Repertoire Elicited against an Immunodominant Epitope Does Not Depend on the Context of Infection.
B. D. Rudd, V. Venturi, M. J. Smithey, S. S. Way, M. P. Davenport, and J. Nikolich-Zugich (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 2958-2965
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effective Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Lack an Easily Detectable, Shared Characteristic.
L. Vojnov, J. S. Reed, K. L. Weisgrau, E. G. Rakasz, J. T. Loffredo, S. M. Piaskowski, J. B. Sacha, H. L. Kolar, N. A. Wilson, R. P. Johnson, et al. (2010)
J. Virol. 84, 753-764
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Peptide-MHC Class II Complex Stability Governs CD4 T Cell Clonal Selection.
C. K. Baumgartner, A. Ferrante, M. Nagaoka, J. Gorski, and L. P. Malherbe (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 573-581
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dominant CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Responses Suppress Expansion of Vaccine-Elicited Subdominant T Lymphocytes in Rhesus Monkeys Challenged with Pathogenic Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
E. R. Manuel, W. W. Yeh, M. S. Seaman, K. Furr, M. A. Lifton, S. L. Hulot, P. Autissier, and N. L. Letvin (2009)
J. Virol. 83, 10028-10035
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Antigen sensitivity is a major determinant of CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality and HIV-suppressive activity.
J. R. Almeida, D. Sauce, D. A. Price, L. Papagno, S. Y. Shin, A. Moris, M. Larsen, G. Pancino, D. C. Douek, B. Autran, et al. (2009)
Blood 113, 6351-6360
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Natural micropolymorphism in human leukocyte antigens provides a basis for genetic control of antigen recognition.
J. K. Archbold, W. A. Macdonald, S. Gras, L. K. Ely, J. J. Miles, M. J. Bell, R. M. Brennan, T. Beddoe, M. C.J. Wilce, C. S. Clements, et al. (2009)
J. Exp. Med. 206, 209-219
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Clonal Expansions and Loss of Receptor Diversity in the Naive CD8 T Cell Repertoire of Aged Mice.
M. Ahmed, K. G. Lanzer, E. J. Yager, P. S. Adams, L. L. Johnson, and M. A. Blackman (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 784-792
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An Effective Vaccine Strategy Protective against Antigenically Distinct Tumor Variants.
K. D. Pavelko, K. L. Heckman, M. J. Hansen, and L. R. Pease (2008)
Cancer Res. 68, 2471-2478
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Age-Related Dysregulation of CD8+ T Cell Memory Specific for a Persistent Virus Is Independent of Viral Replication.
A. Lang, J. D. Brien, I. Messaoudi, and J. Nikolich-Zugich (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 4848-4857
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Age-associated decline in T cell repertoire diversity leads to holes in the repertoire and impaired immunity to influenza virus.
E. J. Yager, M. Ahmed, K. Lanzer, T. D. Randall, D. L. Woodland, and M. A. Blackman (2008)
J. Exp. Med. 205, 711-723
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epitope-specific TCR{beta} repertoire diversity imparts no functional advantage on the CD8+ T cell response to cognate viral peptides.
N. L. La Gruta, P. G. Thomas, A. I. Webb, M. A. Dunstone, T. Cukalac, P. C. Doherty, A. W. Purcell, J. Rossjohn, and S. J. Turner (2008)
PNAS 105, 2034-2039
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Context of Epitope Presentation Can Influence Functional Quality of Recalled Influenza A Virus-Specific Memory CD8+ T Cells.
E. B. Day, W. Zeng, P. C. Doherty, D. C. Jackson, K. Kedzierska, and S. J. Turner (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 2187-2194
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Broad TCR Usage in Functional HIV-1-Specific CD8+ T Cell Expansions Driven by Vaccination during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.
H. Yang, T. Dong, E. Turnbull, S. Ranasinghe, B. Ondondo, N. Goonetilleke, N. Winstone, K. di Gleria, P. Bowness, C. Conlon, et al. (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 597-606
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Avidity of CD8 T cells sharpens immunodominance.
A. H. Dzutsev, I. M. Belyakov, D. V. Isakov, D. H. Margulies, and J. A. Berzofsky (2007)
Int. Immunol. 19, 497-507
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Maintenance of memory CD8+ T cell diversity and proliferative potential by a primary response upon re-challenge.
M. Kurachi, K. Kakimi, S. Ueha, and K. Matsushima (2007)
Int. Immunol. 19, 105-115
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Delay of T cell senescence by caloric restriction in aged long-lived nonhuman primates.
I. Messaoudi, J. Warner, M. Fischer, B. Park, B. Hill, J. Mattison, M. A. Lane, G. S. Roth, D. K. Ingram, L. J. Picker, et al. (2006)
PNAS 103, 19448-19453
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantification of Repertoire Diversity of Influenza-Specific Epitopes with Predominant Public or Private TCR Usage.
K. Kedzierska, E. B. Day, J. Pi, S. B. Heard, P. C. Doherty, S. J. Turner, and S. Perlman (2006)
J. Immunol. 177, 6705-6712
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impact of HLA-B Alleles, Epitope Binding Affinity, Functional Avidity, and Viral Coinfection on the Immunodominance of Virus-Specific CTL Responses.
F. Bihl, N. Frahm, L. Di Giammarino, J. Sidney, M. John, K. Yusim, T. Woodberry, K. Sango, H. S. Hewitt, L. Henry, et al. (2006)
J. Immunol. 176, 4094-4101
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fluctuations of functionally distinct CD8+ T-cell clonotypes demonstrate flexibility of the HIV-specific TCR repertoire.
D. Meyer-Olson, K. W. Brady, M. T. Bartman, K. M. O'Sullivan, B. C. Simons, J. A. Conrad, C. B. Duncan, S. Lorey, A. Siddique, R. Draenert, et al. (2006)
Blood 107, 2373-2383
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tumor-Derived Interleukin-4 Reduces Tumor Clearance and Deviates the Cytokine and Granzyme Profile of Tumor-Induced CD8+ T Cells.
S. Olver, P. Groves, K. Buttigieg, E. S. Morris, M. L. Janas, A. Kelso, and N. Kienzle (2006)
Cancer Res. 66, 571-580
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The immunogenicity of a viral cytotoxic T cell epitope is controlled by its MHC-bound conformation.
F. E. Tynan, D. Elhassen, A. W. Purcell, J. M. Burrows, N. A. Borg, J. J. Miles, N. A. Williamson, K. J. Green, J. Tellam, L. Kjer-Nielsen, et al. (2005)
J. Exp. Med. 202, 1249-1260
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CTL Recognition of a Bulged Viral Peptide Involves Biased TCR Selection.
J. J. Miles, D. Elhassen, N. A. Borg, S. L. Silins, F. E. Tynan, J. M. Burrows, A. W. Purcell, L. Kjer-Nielsen, J. Rossjohn, S. R. Burrows, et al. (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 3826-3834
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
HLA-B63 Presents HLA-B57/B58-Restricted Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes and Is Associated with Low Human Immunodeficiency Virus Load.
N. Frahm, S. Adams, P. Kiepiela, C. H. Linde, H. S. Hewitt, M. Lichterfeld, K. Sango, N. V. Brown, E. Pae, A. G. Wurcel, et al. (2005)
J. Virol. 79, 10218-10225
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High Resolution Structures of Highly Bulged Viral Epitopes Bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I: IMPLICATIONS FOR T-CELL RECEPTOR ENGAGEMENT AND T-CELL IMMUNODOMINANCE.
F. E. Tynan, N. A. Borg, J. J. Miles, T. Beddoe, D. El-Hassen, S. L. Silins, W. J. M. van Zuylen, A. W. Purcell, L. Kjer-Nielsen, J. McCluskey, et al. (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 23900-23909
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Antiviral T cell responses: phalanx or multipronged attack?.
D. N. Posnett, M. E. Engelhorn, and A. N. Houghton (2005)
J. Exp. Med. 201, 1881-1884
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inability of bm14 Mice to Respond to Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus Is Caused by Defective Antigen Presentation, Not Repertoire Selection.
M. S. Block, Y. V. Mendez-Fernandez, V. P. Van Keulen, M. J. Hansen, K. S. Allen, A. L. Taboas, M. Rodriguez, and L. R. Pease (2005)
J. Immunol. 174, 2756-2762
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Generation of Murine CTL by a Hepatitis B Virus-Specific Peptide and Evaluation of the Adjuvant Effect of Heat Shock Protein Glycoprotein 96 and Its Terminal Fragments.
H. Li, M. Zhou, J. Han, X. Zhu, T. Dong, G. F. Gao, and P. Tien (2005)
J. Immunol. 174, 195-204
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural Basis for the Restoration of TCR Recognition of an MHC Allelic Variant by Peptide Secondary Anchor Substitution.
M. J. Miley, I. Messaoudi, B. M. Metzner, Y. Wu, J. Nikolich-Zugich, and D. H. Fremont (2004)
J. Exp. Med. 200, 1445-1454
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Natural HLA Class I Polymorphism Controls the Pathway of Antigen Presentation and Susceptibility to Viral Evasion.
D. Zernich, A. W. Purcell, W. A. Macdonald, L. Kjer-Nielsen, L. K. Ely, N. Laham, T. Crockford, N. A. Mifsud, M. Bharadwaj, L. Chang, et al. (2004)
J. Exp. Med.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The glycoprotein of a fish rhabdovirus profiles the virus-specific T-cell repertoire in rainbow trout.
P. Boudinot, D. Bernard, S. Boubekeur, M.-I. Thoulouze, M. Bremont, and A. Benmansour (2004)
J. Gen. Virol. 85, 3099-3108
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Limited T Cell Receptor Diversity of HCV-specific T Cell Responses Is Associated with CTL Escape.
D. Meyer-Olson, N. H. Shoukry, K. W. Brady, H. Kim, D. P. Olson, K. Hartman, A. K. Shintani, C. M. Walker, and S. A. Kalams (2004)
J. Exp. Med. 200, 307-319
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fine Specificity of High Molecular Weight-Melanoma-Associated Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Elicited by Anti-Idiotypic Monoclonal Antibodies in Patients with Melanoma.
J. L. Murray, M. Gillogly, K. Kawano, C. L. Efferson, J. E. Lee, M. Ross, X. Wang, S. Ferrone, and C. G. Ioannides (2004)
Cancer Res. 64, 5481-5488
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Structure of H-2Kb and Kbm8 Complexed to a Herpes Simplex Virus Determinant: Evidence for a Conformational Switch That Governs T Cell Repertoire Selection and Viral Resistance.
A. I. Webb, N. A. Borg, M. A. Dunstone, L. Kjer-Nielsen, T. Beddoe, J. McCluskey, F. R. Carbone, S. P. Bottomley, M.-I. Aguilar, A. W. Purcell, et al. (2004)
J. Immunol. 173, 402-409
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MHC Class I Gene Conversion Mutations Alter the CD8 T Cell Repertoire.
M. S. Block, M. J. Hansen, V. P. Van Keulen, and L. R. Pease (2003)
J. Immunol. 171, 4006-4010
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Naturally Selected Dimorphism within the HLA-B44 Supertype Alters Class I Structure, Peptide Repertoire, and T Cell Recognition.
W. A. Macdonald, A. W. Purcell, N. A. Mifsud, L. K. Ely, D. S. Williams, L. Chang, J. J. Gorman, C. S. Clements, L. Kjer-Nielsen, D. M. Koelle, et al. (2003)
J. Exp. Med. 198, 679-691
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epitope-Enhanced Conserved HIV-1 Peptide Protects HLA-A2-Transgenic Mice Against Virus Expressing HIV-1 Antigen.
T. Okazaki, C. D. Pendleton, F. Lemonnier, and J. A. Berzofsky (2003)
J. Immunol. 171, 2548-2555
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882