Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 298 (5600): 1912-1934

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

The Protein Kinase Complement of the Human Genome

G. Manning,1* D. B. Whyte,1 R. Martinez,1 T. Hunter,2 S. Sudarsanam13

We have catalogued the protein kinase complement of the human genome (the "kinome") using public and proprietary genomic, complementary DNA, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. This provides a starting point for comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation in normal and disease states, as well as a detailed view of the current state of human genome analysis through a focus on one large gene family. We identify 518 putative protein kinase genes, of which 71 have not previously been reported or described as kinases, and we extend or correct the protein sequences of 56 more kinases. New genes include members of well-studied families as well as previously unidentified families, some of which are conserved in model organisms. Classification and comparison with model organism kinomes identified orthologous groups and highlighted expansions specific to human and other lineages. We also identified 106 protein kinase pseudogenes. Chromosomal mapping revealed several small clusters of kinase genes and revealed that 244 kinases map to disease loci or cancer amplicons.

1 SUGEN Inc., 230 East Grand Avenue, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.
2 Salk Institute, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
3 Genomics and Biotechnology, Pharmacia Corporation, 230 East Grand Avenue, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.
*   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: gerard-manning{at}

Kinases and Pseudokinases: Lessons from RAF.
A. S. Shaw, A. P. Kornev, J. Hu, L. G. Ahuja, and S. S. Taylor (2014)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 34, 1538-1546
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Safety profile of protein kinase inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis.
E. Salgado, J. R. Maneiro, L. Carmona, and J. J. Gomez-Reino (2014)
Ann Rheum Dis 73, 871-882
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of multiple compound-protein interactions reveals novel bioactive molecules.
H. Yabuuchi, S. Niijima, H. Takematsu, T. Ida, T. Hirokawa, T. Hara, T. Ogawa, Y. Minowa, G. Tsujimoto, and Y. Okuno (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 7, 472
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The quantitative proteomes of human-induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells.
J. Munoz, T. Y. Low, Y. J. Kok, A. Chin, C. K. Frese, V. Ding, A. Choo, and A. J. R. Heck (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 7, 550
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kinase/phosphatase overexpression reveals pathways regulating hippocampal neuron morphology.
W. J. Buchser, T. I. Slepak, O. Gutierrez-Arenas, J. L. Bixby, and V. P. Lemmon (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 6, 391
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Slt2p phosphorylation induces cyclin C nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation in response to oxidative stress.
C. Jin, R. Strich, and K. F. Cooper (2014)
Mol. Biol. Cell 25, 1396-1407
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Large-scale phosphorylation mapping reveals the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation in Arabidopsis.
N. Sugiyama, H. Nakagami, K. Mochida, A. Daudi, M. Tomita, K. Shirasu, and Y. Ishihama (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 4, 193
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The proteomes of neurotransmitter receptor complexes form modular networks with distributed functionality underlying plasticity and behaviour.
A. J. Pocklington, M. Cumiskey, J. D. Armstrong, and S. G. N. Grant (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 2, 2006.0023
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protein Ser/Thr/Tyr Phosphorylation in the Archaea.
P. J. Kennelly (2014)
J. Biol. Chem. 289, 9480-9487
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Ancient Microbial RIO Kinases.
N. A. LaRonde (2014)
J. Biol. Chem. 289, 9488-9492
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gas6/Axl pathway promotes tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug in hepatocellular carcinoma.
H.-J. Lee, Y.-M. Jeng, Y.-L. Chen, L. Chung, and R.-H. Yuan (2014)
Carcinogenesis 35, 769-775
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Targeted Quantitative Proteomics Strategy for Global Kinome Profiling of Cancer Cells and Tissues.
Y. Xiao, L. Guo, and Y. Wang (2014)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 13, 1065-1075
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantitative phosphoproteomics unveils temporal dynamics of thrombin signaling in human endothelial cells.
M. van den Biggelaar, J. R. Hernandez-Fernaud, B. L. van den Eshof, L. J. Neilson, A. B. Meijer, K. Mertens, and S. Zanivan (2014)
Blood 123, e22-e36
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Damnacanthal, an effective inhibitor of LIM-kinase, inhibits cell migration and invasion.
K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Nakagawa, N. Uchiumi, T. Amanuma, S. Aiba, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno (2014)
Mol. Biol. Cell 25, 828-840
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structure and Identification of a Pterin Dehydratase-like Protein as a Ribulose-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RuBisCO) Assembly Factor in the {alpha}-Carboxysome.
N. M. Wheatley, C. D. Sundberg, S. D. Gidaniyan, D. Cascio, and T. O. Yeates (2014)
J. Biol. Chem. 289, 7973-7981
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deciphering kinase-substrate relationships by analysis of domain-specific phosphorylation network.
N. P. Damle and D. Mohanty (2014)
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structure of Human RNase L Reveals the Basis for Regulated RNA Decay in the IFN Response.
Y. Han, J. Donovan, S. Rath, G. Whitney, A. Chitrakar, and A. Korennykh (2014)
Science 343, 1244-1248
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Year in Structural Signaling: mTOR--The PIKK of the Bunch?.
S. J. Smerdon (2014)
Science Signaling 7, pe6
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vaccinia-Related Kinase 2 Mediates Accumulation of Polyglutamine Aggregates via Negative Regulation of the Chaperonin TRiC.
S. Kim, D.-Y. Park, D. Lee, W. Kim, Y.-H. Jeong, J. Lee, S.-K. Chung, H. Ha, B.-H. Choi, and K.-T. Kim (2014)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 34, 643-652
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ANIA: ANnotation and Integrated Analysis of the 14-3-3 interactome.
M. Tinti, F. Madeira, G. Murugesan, G. Hoxhaj, R. Toth, and C. MacKintosh (2014)
Database 2014, bat085
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ars Moriendi; the art of dying well - new insights into the molecular pathways of necroptotic cell death.
J. M. Murphy and J. Silke (2014)
EMBO Rep. 15, 155-164
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation Networks in Tetrahymena thermophila, a Model Single-celled Organism.
M. Tian, X. Chen, Q. Xiong, J. Xiong, C. Xiao, F. Ge, F. Yang, and W. Miao (2014)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 13, 503-519
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of LY2228820 Dimesylate, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of p38 MAPK with Antitumor Activity.
R. M. Campbell, B. D. Anderson, N. A. Brooks, H. B. Brooks, E. M. Chan, A. De Dios, R. Gilmour, J. R. Graff, E. Jambrina, M. Mader, et al. (2014)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 13, 364-374
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Specific Inhibitor of PfCDPK4 Blocks Malaria Transmission: Chemical-genetic Validation.
K. K. Ojo, R. T. Eastman, R. Vidadala, Z. Zhang, K. L. Rivas, R. Choi, J. D. Lutz, M. C. Reid, A. M. W. Fox, M. A. Hulverson, et al. (2014)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 209, 275-284
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
In Vitro Infection of Bovine Monocytes with Mycoplasma bovis Delays Apoptosis and Suppresses Production of Gamma Interferon and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but Not Interleukin-10.
M. Mulongo, T. Prysliak, E. Scruten, S. Napper, and J. Perez-Casal (2014)
Infect. Immun. 82, 62-71
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Protein Kinase Us3 Phosphorylates Viral dUTPase and Regulates Its Catalytic Activity in Infected Cells.
A. Kato, S. Tsuda, Z. Liu, H. Kozuka-Hata, M. Oyama, and Y. Kawaguchi (2014)
J. Virol. 88, 655-666
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
EKPD: a hierarchical database of eukaryotic protein kinases and protein phosphatases.
Y. Wang, Z. Liu, H. Cheng, T. Gao, Z. Pan, Q. Yang, A. Guo, and Y. Xue (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res. 42, D496-D502
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop.
O. A. Quintero, W. C. Unrath, S. M. Stevens Jr., U. Manor, B. Kachar, and C. M. Yengo (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 37126-37137
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stable Isotope Metabolic Labeling-based Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Reveals Ethylene-regulated Time-dependent Phosphoproteins and Putative Substrates of Constitutive Triple Response 1 Kinase.
Z. Yang, G. Guo, M. Zhang, C. Y. Liu, Q. Hu, H. Lam, H. Cheng, Y. Xue, J. Li, and N. Li (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 3559-3582
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stochastic detection of Pim protein kinases reveals electrostatically enhanced association of a peptide substrate.
L. Harrington, S. Cheley, L. T. Alexander, S. Knapp, and H. Bayley (2013)
PNAS 110, E4417-E4426
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NMR reveals the allosteric opening and closing of Abelson tyrosine kinase by ATP-site and myristoyl pocket inhibitors.
L. Skora, J. Mestan, D. Fabbro, W. Jahnke, and S. Grzesiek (2013)
PNAS 110, E4437-E4445
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Biology of the TAM Receptors.
G. Lemke (2013)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5, a009076
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation and mRNA Splicing of Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 Determine Inhibition of Rho-associated Protein Kinase (ROCK) II Function in Carcinoma Cell Migration and Invasion.
M. Morgan-Fisher, J. R. Couchman, and A. Yoneda (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 31229-31240
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evaluation of Cancer Dependence and Druggability of PRP4 Kinase Using Cellular, Biochemical, and Structural Approaches.
Q. Gao, I. Mechin, N. Kothari, Z. Guo, G. Deng, K. Haas, J. McManus, D. Hoffmann, A. Wang, D. Wiederschain, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 30125-30138
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Systems-Level Overview of Host Protein Phosphorylation During Shigella flexneri Infection Revealed by Phosphoproteomics.
C. Schmutz, E. Ahrne, C. A. Kasper, T. Tschon, I. Sorg, R. F. Dreier, A. Schmidt, and C. Arrieumerlou (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 2952-2968
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kinannote, a computer program to identify and classify members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily.
J. M. Goldberg, A. D. Griggs, J. L. Smith, B. J. Haas, J. R. Wortman, and Q. Zeng (2013)
Bioinformatics 29, 2387-2394
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Cancer-Associated Mutation in Atypical Protein Kinase C{iota} Occurs in a Substrate-Specific Recruitment Motif.
M. Linch, M. Sanz-Garcia, E. Soriano, Y. Zhang, P. Riou, C. Rosse, A. Cameron, P. Knowles, A. Purkiss, S. Kjaer, et al. (2013)
Science Signaling 6, ra82
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes.
J. G. Villamor, F. Kaschani, T. Colby, J. Oeljeklaus, D. Zhao, M. Kaiser, M. P. Patricelli, and R. A. L. van der Hoorn (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 2481-2496
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
J. S. Nijjar, A. Tindell, I. B. McInnes, and S. Siebert (2013)
Rheumatology 52, 1556-1562
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
SGK196 Is a Glycosylation-Specific O-Mannose Kinase Required for Dystroglycan Function.
T. Yoshida-Moriguchi, T. Willer, M. E. Anderson, D. Venzke, T. Whyte, F. Muntoni, H. Lee, S. F. Nelson, L. Yu, and K. P. Campbell (2013)
Science 341, 896-899
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 by p38{alpha} Selectively Increases 17,20 Lyase Activity and Androgen Biosynthesis.
M. K. Tee and W. L. Miller (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 23903-23913
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An Unbiased Approach to Identifying Tau Kinases That Phosphorylate Tau at Sites Associated with Alzheimer Disease.
A. Cavallini, S. Brewerton, A. Bell, S. Sargent, S. Glover, C. Hardy, R. Moore, J. Calley, D. Ramachandran, M. Poidinger, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 23331-23347
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Marked phenotypic differences of endurance performance and exercise-induced oxygen consumption between AMPK and LKB1 deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle: changes occurring in the diaphragm.
S. Miura, Y. Kai, M. Tadaishi, Y. Tokutake, K. Sakamoto, C. R. Bruce, M. A. Febbraio, K. Kita, S. Chohnan, and O. Ezaki (2013)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 305, E213-E229
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Biology of Atherosclerosis.
P. N. Hopkins (2013)
Physiol Rev 93, 1317-1542
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A wheat PI4K gene whose product possesses threonine autophophorylation activity confers tolerance to drought and salt in Arabidopsis.
P. Liu, Z.-S. Xu, L. Pan-Pan, D. Hu, M. Chen, L.-C. Li, and Y.-Z. Ma (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 2915-2927
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation of KRAB-associated Protein 1 (KAP1) at Tyr-449, Tyr-458, and Tyr-517 by Nuclear Tyrosine Kinases Inhibits the Association of KAP1 and Heterochromatin Protein 1{alpha} (HP1{alpha}) with Heterochromatin.
S. Kubota, Y. Fukumoto, K. Aoyama, K. Ishibashi, R. Yuki, T. Morinaga, T. Honda, N. Yamaguchi, T. Kuga, T. Tomonaga, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 17871-17883
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dissecting the Roles of Tyrosines 490 and 785 of TrkA Protein in the Induction of Downstream Protein Phosphorylation Using Chimeric Receptors.
J. Biarc, R. J. Chalkley, A. L. Burlingame, and R. A. Bradshaw (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 16606-16618
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prostate-derived Sterile 20-like Kinases (PSKs/TAOKs) Phosphorylate Tau Protein and Are Activated in Tangle-bearing Neurons in Alzheimer Disease.
I. A. Tavares, D. Touma, S. Lynham, C. Troakes, M. Schober, M. Causevic, R. Garg, W. Noble, R. Killick, I. Bodi, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 15418-15429
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Systematic analysis of the Plk-mediated phosphoregulation in eukaryotes.
Z. Liu, J. Ren, J. Cao, J. He, X. Yao, C. Jin, and Y. Xue (2013)
Brief Bioinform 14, 344-360
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural Analysis of the Regulation of the DYNLL/LC8 Binding to Nek9 by Phosphorylation.
P. Gallego, A. Velazquez-Campoy, L. Regue, J. Roig, and D. Reverter (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 12283-12294
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of Torin2, an ATP-Competitive Inhibitor of mTOR, ATM, and ATR.
Q. Liu, C. Xu, S. Kirubakaran, X. Zhang, W. Hur, Y. Liu, N. P. Kwiatkowski, J. Wang, K. D. Westover, P. Gao, et al. (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 2574-2586
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Computational phosphorylation site prediction in plants using random forests and organism-specific instance weights.
B. Trost and A. Kusalik (2013)
Bioinformatics 29, 686-694
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Outlier Kinase Expression by RNA Sequencing as Targets for Precision Therapy.
V. Kothari, I. Wei, S. Shankar, S. Kalyana-Sundaram, L. Wang, L. W. Ma, P. Vats, C. S. Grasso, D. R. Robinson, Y.-M. Wu, et al. (2013)
Cancer Discovery 3, 280-293
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The DegraBase: A Database of Proteolysis in Healthy and Apoptotic Human Cells.
E. D. Crawford, J. E. Seaman, N. Agard, G. W. Hsu, O. Julien, S. Mahrus, H. Nguyen, K. Shimbo, H. A. I. Yoshihara, M. Zhuang, et al. (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 813-824
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Duplication and maintenance of the Myb genes of vertebrate animals.
C. J. Davidson, E. E. Guthrie, and J. S. Lipsick (2013)
Biology Open 2, 101-110
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
HIPK2 kinase activity depends on cis-autophosphorylation of its activation loop.
V. V. Saul, L. de la Vega, M. Milanovic, M. Kruger, T. Braun, K. Fritz-Wolf, K. Becker, and M. L. Schmitz (2013)
J Mol Cell Biol 5, 27-38
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of a hidden strain switch provides clues to an ancient structural mechanism in protein kinases.
K. Oruganty, N. S. Talathi, Z. A. Wood, and N. Kannan (2013)
PNAS 110, 924-929
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Loss of WNK2 expression by promoter gene methylation occurs in adult gliomas and triggers Rac1-mediated tumour cell invasiveness.
S. Moniz, O. Martinho, F. Pinto, B. Sousa, C. Loureiro, M. J. Oliveira, L. F. Moita, M. Honavar, C. Pinheiro, M. Pires, et al. (2013)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 22, 84-95
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
KIDFamMap: a database of kinase-inhibitor-disease family maps for kinase inhibitor selectivity and binding mechanisms.
Y.-Y. Chiu, C.-T. Lin, J.-W. Huang, K.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Tseng, S.-R. You, and J.-M. Yang (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, D430-D440
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PhosPhAt goes kinases--searchable protein kinase target information in the plant phosphorylation site database PhosPhAt.
M. Zulawski, R. Braginets, and W. X. Schulze (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, D1176-D1184
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An Ultra-specific Avian Antibody to Phosphorylated Tau Protein Reveals a Unique Mechanism for Phosphoepitope Recognition.
H. H. Shih, C. Tu, W. Cao, A. Klein, R. Ramsey, B. J. Fennell, M. Lambert, D. Ni Shuilleabhain, B. Autin, E. Kouranova, et al. (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 44425-44434
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human VRK2 (Vaccinia-related Kinase 2) Modulates Tumor Cell Invasion by Hyperactivation of NFAT1 and Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2.
M. Vazquez-Cedeira and P. A. Lazo (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 42739-42750
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Frizzled and LRP5/6 Receptors for Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Signaling.
B. T. MacDonald and X. He (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a007880
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Systems biology in physiology: the vasopressin signaling network in kidney.
M. A. Knepper (2012)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 303, C1115-C1124
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Phosphorylates S/T-P Sites in the Hepadnavirus Core Protein C-Terminal Domain and Is Incorporated into Viral Capsids.
L. Ludgate, X. Ning, D. H. Nguyen, C. Adams, L. Mentzer, and J. Hu (2012)
J. Virol. 86, 12237-12250
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
On the molecular mechanisms of mitotic kinase activation.
R. Bayliss, A. Fry, T. Haq, and S. Yeoh (2012)
Open Bio 2, 120136
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of PAN2 by Quantitative Proteomics as a Leucine-Rich Repeat-Receptor-Like Kinase Acting Upstream of PAN1 to Polarize Cell Division in Maize.
X. Zhang, M. Facette, J. A. Humphries, Z. Shen, Y. Park, D. Sutimantanapi, A. W. Sylvester, S. P. Briggs, and L. G. Smith (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 4577-4589
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The genesis of Zelboraf: Targeting mutant B-Raf in melanoma.
M. J. Davis and J. Schlessinger (2012)
J. Cell Biol. 199, 15-19
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mutual regulation between SIAH2 and DYRK2 controls hypoxic and genotoxic signaling pathways.
M. Perez, C. Garcia-Limones, I. Zapico, A. Marina, M. L. Schmitz, E. Munoz, and M. A. Calzado (2012)
J Mol Cell Biol 4, 316-330
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Systematic Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation Networks From Phosphoproteomic Data.
C. Song, M. Ye, Z. Liu, H. Cheng, X. Jiang, G. Han, Z. Songyang, Y. Tan, H. Wang, J. Ren, et al. (2012)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11, 1070-1083
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identifying protein kinase target preferences using mass spectrometry.
J. Douglass, R. Gunaratne, D. Bradford, F. Saeed, J. D. Hoffert, P. J. Steinbach, M. A. Knepper, and T. Pisitkun (2012)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 303, C715-C727
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Superbinder SH2 Domains Act as Antagonists of Cell Signaling.
T. Kaneko, H. Huang, X. Cao, X. Li, C. Li, C. Voss, S. S. Sidhu, and S. S. C. Li (2012)
Science Signaling 5, ra68
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily.
M. D. Lehti-Shiu and S.-H. Shiu (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 2619-2639
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An evolutionary perspective on the kinome of malaria parasites.
E. Talevich, A. B. Tobin, N. Kannan, and C. Doerig (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 2607-2618
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Design principles underpinning the regulatory diversity of protein kinases.
K. Oruganty and N. Kannan (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 2529-2539
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evolution of the eukaryotic protein kinases as dynamic molecular switches.
S. S. Taylor, M. M. Keshwani, J. M. Steichen, and A. P. Kornev (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 2517-2528
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protein abundance is key to distinguish promiscuous from functional phosphorylation based on evolutionary information.
E. D. Levy, S. W. Michnick, and C. R. Landry (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 2594-2606
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modular evolution of phosphorylation-based signalling systems.
J. Jin and T. Pawson (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 2540-2555
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evolution of SH2 domains and phosphotyrosine signalling networks.
B. A. Liu and P. D. Nash (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 2556-2573
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Charting the Landscape of Tandem BRCT Domain-Mediated Protein Interactions.
N. T. Woods, R. D. Mesquita, M. Sweet, M. A. Carvalho, X. Li, Y. Liu, H. Nguyen, C. E. Thomas, E. S. Iversen Jr., S. Marsillac, et al. (2012)
Science Signaling 5, rs6
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pseudogenes: Newly Discovered Players in Human Cancer.
L. Poliseno (2012)
Science Signaling 5, re5
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection.
D. A. Martinez, B. G. Oliver, Y. Graser, J. M. Goldberg, W. Li, N. M. Martinez-Rossi, M. Monod, E. Shelest, R. C. Barton, E. Birch, et al. (2012)
mBio 3, e00259-12
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Duplicate gene enrichment and expression pattern diversification in multicellularity.
T. Padawer, R. E. Leighty, and D. Wang (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 7597-7605
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882