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Science 299 (5606): 560-562

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Chromatin Loosening by Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila Puff Loci

Alexei Tulin, Allan Spradling

Steroid response and stress-activated genes such as hsp70 undergo puffing in Drosophila larval salivary glands, a local loosening of polytene chromatin structure associated with gene induction. We find that puffs acquire elevated levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose modified proteins and that poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) is required to produce normal-sized puffs and normal amounts of Hsp70 after heat exposure. We propose that chromosomal PARP molecules become activated by developmental or environmental cues and strip nearby chromatin proteins off DNA to generate a puff. Such local loosening may facilitate transcription and may transiently make protein complexes more accessible to modification, promoting chromatin remodeling during development.

Howard Hughes Medical Research Laboratories, Embryology Department, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA.

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J. Biol. Chem. 280, 33756-33765
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Genes & Dev. 19, 1951-1967
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Long-Term Memory Requires PolyADP-ribosylation.
M. Cohen-Armon, L. Visochek, A. Katzoff, D. Levitan, A. J. Susswein, R. Klein, M. Valbrun, and J. H. Schwartz (2004)
Science 304, 1820-1822
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Defective transcription factor activation for proinflammatory gene expression in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1-deficient glia.
H. C. Ha (2004)
PNAS 101, 5087-5092
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Differential regulation of activator protein-1 and heat shock factor-1 in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury: role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.
B. Zingarelli, P. W. Hake, M. O'Connor, A. Denenberg, H. R. Wong, S. Kong, and B. J. Aronow (2004)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286, H1408-H1415
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M. Rouleau, R. A. Aubin, and G. G. Poirier (2004)
J. Cell Sci. 117, 815-825
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Studies of the Role of the Drosophila scs and scs' Insulators in Defining Boundaries of a Chromosome Puff.
E. J. Kuhn, C. M. Hart, and P. K. Geyer (2004)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 1470-1480
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Transcription regulation of TNF-{alpha}-early response genes by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in murine heart endothelial cells.
A. Carrillo, Y. Monreal, P. Ramirez, L. Marin, P. Parrilla, F. J. Oliver, and J. Yelamos (2004)
Nucleic Acids Res. 32, 757-766
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Loss of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase causes progressive neurodegeneration in Drosophila melanogaster.
S. Hanai, M. Kanai, S. Ohashi, K. Okamoto, M. Yamada, H. Takahashi, and M. Miwa (2004)
PNAS 101, 82-86
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Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 and Ste20-Like Kinase hKFC Act as Transcriptional Repressors for Gamma-2 Herpesvirus Lytic Replication.
Y. Gwack, H. Nakamura, S. H. Lee, J. Souvlis, J. T. Yustein, S. Gygi, H.-J. Kung, and J. U. Jung (2003)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 8282-8294
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Transcriptional Coactivation of Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B-dependent Gene Expression by p300 Is Regulated by Poly(ADP)-ribose Polymerase-1.
P. O. Hassa, C. Buerki, C. Lombardi, R. Imhof, and M. O. Hottiger (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 45145-45153
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A requirement for PARP-1 for the assembly or stability of XRCC1 nuclear foci at sites of oxidative DNA damage.
S. F. El-Khamisy, M. Masutani, H. Suzuki, and K. W. Caldecott (2003)
Nucleic Acids Res. 31, 5526-5533
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intra-mitochondrial Poly(ADP-ribosylation) Contributes to NAD+ Depletion and Cell Death Induced by Oxidative Stress.
L. Du, X. Zhang, Y. Y. Han, N. A. Burke, P. M. Kochanek, S. C. Watkins, S. H. Graham, J. A. Carcillo, C. Szabo, and R. S. B. Clark (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 18426-18433
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
V. Pirrotta (2003)
Science 299, 528-529
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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