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Science 299 (5611): 1404-1407

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Genetic Control of Surface Curvature

Utpal Nath, Brian C. W. Crawford, Rosemary Carpenter, Enrico Coen*

Although curvature of biological surfaces has been considered from mathematical and biophysical perspectives, its molecular and developmental basis is unclear. We have studied the cin mutant of Antirrhinum, which has crinkly rather than flat leaves. Leaves of cin display excess growth in marginal regions, resulting in a gradual introduction of negative curvature during development. This reflects a change in the shape and the progression of a cell-cycle arrest front moving from the leaf tip toward the base. CIN encodes a TCP protein and is expressed downstream of the arrest front. We propose that CIN promotes zero curvature (flatness) by making cells more sensitive to an arrest signal, particularly in marginal regions.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.
*   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: enrico.coen{at}

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Development 138, 695-704
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Proc R Soc A 467, 402-426
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M. Ikeuchi, T. Yamaguchi, T. Kazama, T. Ito, G. Horiguchi, and H. Tsukaya (2011)
Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 59-69
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Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 112-124
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PLANT CELL 22, 3574-3588
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PLANT CELL 22, 3206-3217
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R. Sarojam, P. G. Sappl, A. Goldshmidt, I. Efroni, S. K. Floyd, Y. Eshed, and J. L. Bowman (2010)
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Plant Physiology 153, 1261-1279
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J. Exp. Bot. 61, 2757-2767
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PNAS 107, 8475-8480
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PLANT CELL 22, 1019-1032
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Identification of Specific DNA Binding Residues in the TCP Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis.
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PLANT CELL 22, 1174-1189
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J. Exp. Bot. 61, 1277-1291
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PNAS 107, 2711-2716
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Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 252-261
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Development 137, 103-112
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PNAS 106, 22049-22054
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miR319a targeting of TCP4 is critical for petal growth and development in Arabidopsis.
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PNAS 106, 22534-22539
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A loop-to-base processing mechanism underlies the biogenesis of plant microRNAs miR319 and miR159.
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EMBO J. 28, 3646-3656
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Phased Control of Expansin Activity during Leaf Development Identifies a Sensitivity Window for Expansin-Mediated Induction of Leaf Growth.
J. Sloan, A. Backhaus, R. Malinowski, S. McQueen-Mason, and A. J. Fleming (2009)
Plant Physiology 151, 1844-1854
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Plant Physiology 151, 1557-1569
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PLANT CELL 21, 3093-3104
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Plant Cell Physiol. 50, 1840-1850
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Plant Physiology 149, 1387-1398
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Plant Physiology 149, 1462-1477
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Plant Physiology 149, 235-244
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PNAS 105, 19132-19135
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Integr. Comp. Biol. 48, 834-851
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PLANT CELL 20, 2283
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PLANT CELL 20, 2293-2306
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Functional Redundancy and New Roles for Genes of the Autonomous Floral-Promotion Pathway.
K. M. Veley and S. D. Michaels (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 682-695
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Genes & Dev. 22, 1331-1336
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Mol. Biol. Evol. 25, 892-902
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A. Busch and S. Zachgo (2007)
PNAS 104, 16714-16719
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Plant Physiology 144, 988-999
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Divergent Regulatory OsMADS2 Functions Control Size, Shape and Differentiation of the Highly Derived Rice Floret Second-Whorl Organ.
S. R. Yadav, K. Prasad, and U. Vijayraghavan (2007)
Genetics 176, 283-294
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TCP Transcription Factors Control the Morphology of Shoot Lateral Organs via Negative Regulation of the Expression of Boundary-Specific Genes in Arabidopsis.
T. Koyama, M. Furutani, M. Tasaka, and M. Ohme-Takagi (2007)
PLANT CELL 19, 473-484
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Arabidopsis BRANCHED1 Acts as an Integrator of Branching Signals within Axillary Buds.
J. A. Aguilar-Martinez, C. Poza-Carrion, and P. Cubas (2007)
PLANT CELL 19, 458-472
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C. Damerval, M. L. Guilloux, M. Jager, and C. Charon (2007)
Plant Physiology 143, 759-772
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K. Nikovics, T. Blein, A. Peaucelle, T. Ishida, H. Morin, M. Aida, and P. Laufs (2006)
PLANT CELL 18, 2929-2945
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Mutations in the RETICULATA gene dramatically alter internal architecture but have little effect on overall organ shape in Arabidopsis leaves.
R. Gonzalez-Bayon, E. A. Kinsman, V. Quesada, A. Vera, P. Robles, M. R. Ponce, K. A. Pyke, and J. L. Micol (2006)
J. Exp. Bot. 57, 3019-3031
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PEAPOD regulates lamina size and curvature in Arabidopsis.
D. W. R. White (2006)
PNAS 103, 13238-13243
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NUBBIN and JAGGED define stamen and carpel shape in Arabidopsis.
J. R. Dinneny, D. Weigel, and M. F. Yanofsky (2006)
Development 133, 1645-1655
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Evolution of regulatory interactions controlling floral asymmetry.
M. M. R. Costa, S. Fox, A. I. Hanna, C. Baxter, and E. Coen (2005)
Development 132, 5093-5101
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