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Science 299 (5612): 1575-1578

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

STAT1-Dependent Innate Immunity to a Norwalk-Like Virus

Stephanie M. Karst,* Christiane E. Wobus,* Margarita Lay, John Davidson, Herbert W. Virgin IVdagger

Norwalk-like caliciviruses (Noroviruses) cause over 90% of nonbacterial epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide, but the pathogenesis of norovirus infection is poorly understood because these viruses do not grow in cultured cells and there is no small animal model. Here, we report a previously unknown murine norovirus. Analysis of Murine Norovirus 1 infection revealed that signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-dependent innate immunity, but not T and B cell-dependent adaptive immunity, is essential for norovirus resistance. The identification of host molecules essential for murine norovirus resistance may provide targets for prevention or control of an important human disease.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
*   These authors contributed equally to this work.

dagger    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Virgin{at}

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A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution in the P2 Domain of VP1 of Murine Norovirus Is Sufficient for Escape from Antibody Neutralization.
V. P. Lochridge and M. E. Hardy (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 12316-12322
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Characterization of a Broadly Reactive Monoclonal Antibody against Norovirus Genogroups I and II: Recognition of a Novel Conformational Epitope.
T. Shiota, M. Okame, S. Takanashi, P. Khamrin, M. Takagi, K. Satou, Y. Masuoka, F. Yagyu, Y. Shimizu, H. Kohno, et al. (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 12298-12306
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Murine Noroviruses Comprising a Single Genogroup Exhibit Biological Diversity despite Limited Sequence Divergence.
L. B. Thackray, C. E. Wobus, K. A. Chachu, B. Liu, E. R. Alegre, K. S. Henderson, S. T. Kelley, and H. W. Virgin IV (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 10460-10473
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sensitive Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for the Detection of Human and Animal Noroviruses in Clinical and Environmental Samples.
S. Wolf, W. M. Williamson, J. Hewitt, M. Rivera-Aban, S. Lin, A. Ball, P. Scholes, and G. E. Greening (2007)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 73, 5464-5470
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recovery of genetically defined murine norovirus in tissue culture by using a fowlpox virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase.
Y. Chaudhry, M. A. Skinner, and I. G. Goodfellow (2007)
J. Gen. Virol. 88, 2091-2100
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recovery of infectious murine norovirus using pol II-driven expression of full-length cDNA.
V. K. Ward, C. J. McCormick, I. N. Clarke, O. Salim, C. E. Wobus, L. B. Thackray, H. W. Virgin IV, and P. R. Lambden (2007)
PNAS 104, 11050-11055
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Type I interferons produced by hematopoietic cells protect mice against lethal infection by mammalian reovirus.
C. Johansson, J. D. Wetzel, J. He, C. Mikacenic, T. S. Dermody, and B. L. Kelsall (2007)
J. Exp. Med. 204, 1349-1358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Widespread Outbreak of Norovirus Gastroenteritis among Evacuees of Hurricane Katrina Residing in a Large "Megashelter" in Houston, Texas: Lessons Learned for Prevention.
E. L. Yee, H. Palacio, R. L. Atmar, U. Shah, C. Kilborn, M. Faul, T. E. Gavagan, R. D. Feigin, J. Versalovic, F. H. Neill, et al. (2007)
Clinical Infectious Diseases 44, 1032-1039
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Murine Norovirus 1 Infection Is Associated with Histopathological Changes in Immunocompetent Hosts, but Clinical Disease Is Prevented by STAT1-Dependent Interferon Responses.
S. M. Mumphrey, H. Changotra, T. N. Moore, E. R. Heimann-Nichols, C. E. Wobus, M. J. Reilly, M. Moghadamfalahi, D. Shukla, and S. M. Karst (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 3251-3263
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inactivation of a Norovirus by High-Pressure Processing.
D. H. Kingsley, D. R. Holliman, K. R. Calci, H. Chen, and G. J. Flick (2007)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 73, 581-585
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Feline calicivirus replication: requirement for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is temperature-dependent..
I. Karakasiliotis, Y. Chaudhry, L. O. Roberts, and I. G. Goodfellow (2006)
J. Gen. Virol. 87, 3339-3347
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Pathology of Immunodeficient Mice With Naturally Occurring Murine Norovirus Infection.
J. M. Ward, C. E. Wobus, L. B. Thackray, C. R. Erexson, L. J. Faucette, G. Belliot, E. L. Barron, S. V. Sosnovtsev, and K. Y. Green (2006)
Toxicol Pathol 34, 708-715
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Caliciviruses Differ in Their Functional Requirements for eIF4F Components.
Y. Chaudhry, A. Nayak, M.-E. Bordeleau, J. Tanaka, J. Pelletier, G. J. Belsham, L. O. Roberts, and I. G. Goodfellow (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 25315-25325
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Cleavage Map and Proteolytic Processing of the Murine Norovirus Nonstructural Polyprotein in Infected Cells.
S. V. Sosnovtsev, G. Belliot, K.-O. Chang, V. G. Prikhodko, L. B. Thackray, C. E. Wobus, S. M. Karst, H. W. Virgin, and K. Y. Green (2006)
J. Virol. 80, 7816-7831
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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