Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 301 (5632): 510-513

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Cannibalism by Sporulating Bacteria

José E. González-Pastor,* Errett C. Hobbs, Richard Losick{dagger}

Abstract: Spore formation by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis is an elaborate developmental process that is triggered by nutrient limitation. Here we report that cells that have entered the pathway to sporulate produce and export a killing factor and a signaling protein that act cooperatively to block sister cells from sporulating and to cause them to lyse. The sporulating cells feed on the nutrients thereby released, which allows them to keep growing rather than to complete morphogenesis. We propose that sporulation is a stress-response pathway of last resort and that B. subtilis delays a commitment to spore formation by cannibalizing its siblings.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Back to Top

* Present address: Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: losick{at}

Transient heterogeneity in extracellular protease production by Bacillus subtilis.
J.-W. Veening, O. A. Igoshin, R. T. Eijlander, R. Nijland, L. W. Hamoen, and O. P. Kuipers (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 4, 184
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Life History Analysis of Integrative and Conjugative Element Activation in Growing Microcolonies of Pseudomonas.
F. Reinhard and J. R. van der Meer (2014)
J. Bacteriol. 196, 1425-1434
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
In Bacillus subtilis LutR is part of the global complex regulatory network governing the adaptation to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.
O. Irigul-Sonmez, T. E. Koroglu, B. Ozturk, A. T. Kovacs, O. P. Kuipers, and A. Yazgan-Karatas (2014)
Microbiology 160, 243-260
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Private link between signal and response in Bacillus subtilis quorum sensing.
A. Oslizlo, P. Stefanic, I. Dogsa, and I. Mandic-Mulec (2014)
PNAS 111, 1586-1591
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stationary Phase and Nutrient Levels Trigger Transcription of a Genomic Locus Containing a Novel Peptide (TM1316) in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima.
A. D. Frock, C. I. Montero, S. E. Blumer-Schuette, and R. M. Kelly (2013)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 79, 6637-6646
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Escherichia coli CydX Protein Is a Member of the CydAB Cytochrome bd Oxidase Complex and Is Required for Cytochrome bd Oxidase Activity.
C. E. VanOrsdel, S. Bhatt, R. J. Allen, E. P. Brenner, J. J. Hobson, A. Jamil, B. M. Haynes, A. M. Genson, and M. R. Hemm (2013)
J. Bacteriol. 195, 3640-3650
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Production of the Cannibalism Toxin SDP Is a Multistep Process That Requires SdpA and SdpB.
T. G. Perez Morales, T. D. Ho, W.-T. Liu, P. C. Dorrestein, and C. D. Ellermeier (2013)
J. Bacteriol. 195, 3244-3251
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
6S-1 RNA Function Leads to a Delay in Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
A. T. Cavanagh and K. M. Wassarman (2013)
J. Bacteriol. 195, 2079-2086
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Metabolic Regulation of Sporulation and Parasporal Crystal Formation in Bacillus thuringiensis Revealed by Transcriptomics and Proteomics.
J. Wang, H. Mei, C. Zheng, H. Qian, C. Cui, Y. Fu, J. Su, Z. Liu, Z. Yu, and J. He (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 1363-1376
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effect of the Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii Spo0F H101R Mutation on Strain Fitness.
D. V. Zhelev, M. Hunt, A. Le, C. Dupuis, S. Ren, and H. S. Gibbons (2012)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 78, 8601-8610
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Toxin-Antitoxin Genes of the Gram-Positive Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: So Few and Yet So Many.
W. T. Chan, I. Moreno-Cordoba, C. C. Yeo, and M. Espinosa (2012)
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 76, 773-791
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intraguild predation provides a selection mechanism for bacterial antagonistic compounds.
J. J. Leisner and J. Haaber (2012)
Proc R Soc B 279, 4513-4521
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Culture History and Population Heterogeneity as Determinants of Bacterial Adaptation: the Adaptomics of a Single Environmental Transition.
B. Ryall, G. Eydallin, and T. Ferenci (2012)
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 76, 597-625
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
YknWXYZ Is an Unusual Four-Component Transporter with a Role in Protection against Sporulation-Delaying-Protein-Induced Killing of Bacillus subtilis.
Y. Yamada, E. B. Tikhonova, and H. I. Zgurskaya (2012)
J. Bacteriol. 194, 4386-4394
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
2010 Informal Nutrition Symposium * Remodeling the intestinal ecosystem toward better performance and intestinal health.
A. A. Pedroso, J. Maurer, Y. Cheng, and M. D. Lee (2012)
J Appl Poult Res 21, 432-443
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integration of {sigma}B Activity into the Decision-Making Process of Sporulation Initiation in Bacillus subtilis.
A. Reder, U. Gerth, and M. Hecker (2012)
J. Bacteriol. 194, 1065-1074
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interspecies interactions that result in Bacillus subtilis forming biofilms are mediated mainly by members of its own genus.
E. A. Shank, V. Klepac-Ceraj, L. Collado-Torres, G. E. Powers, R. Losick, and R. Kolter (2011)
PNAS 108, E1236-E1243
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Just-in-Time Control of Spo0A Synthesis in Bacillus subtilis by Multiple Regulatory Mechanisms.
A. Chastanet and R. Losick (2011)
J. Bacteriol. 193, 6366-6374
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation of Spo0A by the Histidine Kinase KinD Requires the Lipoprotein Med in Bacillus subtilis.
A. V. Banse, E. C. Hobbs, and R. Losick (2011)
J. Bacteriol. 193, 3949-3955
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Surviving Bacterial Sibling Rivalry: Inducible and Reversible Phenotypic Switching in Paenibacillus dendritiformis.
A. Be'er, E.- L. Florin, C. R. Fisher, H. L. Swinney, and S. M. Payne (2011)
mBio 2, e00069-11
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Catabolite Repression of the Bacillus subtilis FadR Regulon, Which Is Involved in Fatty Acid Catabolism.
S. Tojo, T. Satomura, H. Matsuoka, K. Hirooka, and Y. Fujita (2011)
J. Bacteriol. 193, 2388-2395
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bistability in myo-Inositol Utilization by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.
C. Kroger, S. Srikumar, J. Ellwart, and T. M. Fuchs (2011)
J. Bacteriol. 193, 1427-1435
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Structure and Interactions of SpoIISA and SpoIISB, a Toxin-Antitoxin System in Bacillus subtilis.
P. Florek, V. M. Levdikov, E. Blagova, A. A. Lebedev, R. Skrabana, S. Resetarova, P. Pavelcikova, I. Barak, and A. J. Wilkinson (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 6808-6819
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Imaging mass spectrometry of intraspecies metabolic exchange revealed the cannibalistic factors of Bacillus subtilis.
W.-T. Liu, Y.-L. Yang, Y. Xu, A. Lamsa, N. M. Haste, J. Y. Yang, J. Ng, D. Gonzalez, C. D. Ellermeier, P. D. Straight, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 16286-16290
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The pdh Operon Is Expressed in a Subpopulation of Stationary-Phase Bacteria and Is Important for Survival of Sugar-Starved Streptococcus mutans.
M. Busuioc, B. A. Buttaro, and P. J. Piggot (2010)
J. Bacteriol. 192, 4395-4402
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Threshold Level of the Sensor Histidine Kinase KinA Governs Entry into Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
P. Eswaramoorthy, D. Duan, J. Dinh, A. Dravis, S. N. Devi, and M. Fujita (2010)
J. Bacteriol. 192, 3870-3882
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Single-cell measurement of the levels and distributions of the phosphorelay components in a population of sporulating Bacillus subtilis cells.
P. Eswaramoorthy, J. Dinh, D. Duan, O. A. Igoshin, and M. Fujita (2010)
Microbiology 156, 2294-2304
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
D. Lopez, H. Vlamakis, and R. Kolter (2010)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2, a000398
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Muropeptide Rescue in Bacillus subtilis Involves Sequential Hydrolysis by {beta}-N-Acetylglucosaminidase and N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanine Amidase.
S. Litzinger, A. Duckworth, K. Nitzsche, C. Risinger, V. Wittmann, and C. Mayer (2010)
J. Bacteriol. 192, 3132-3143
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Heterochronic Phosphorelay Gene Expression as a Source of Heterogeneity in Bacillus subtilis Spore Formation.
I. G. de Jong, J. W. Veening, and O. P. Kuipers (2010)
J. Bacteriol. 192, 2053-2067
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lethal protein produced in response to competition between sibling bacterial colonies.
A. Be'er, G. Ariel, O. Kalisman, Y. Helman, A. Sirota-Madi, H. P. Zhang, E.- L. Florin, S. M. Payne, E. Ben-Jacob, and H. L. Swinney (2010)
PNAS 107, 6258-6263
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cell density and mobility protect swarming bacteria against antibiotics.
M. T. Butler, Q. Wang, and R. M. Harshey (2010)
PNAS 107, 3776-3781
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
{sigma}X Is Involved in Controlling Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Architecture through the AbrB Homologue Abh.
E. J. Murray, M. A. Strauch, and N. R. Stanley-Wall (2009)
J. Bacteriol. 191, 6822-6832
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lack of A-factor Production Induces the Expression of Nutrient Scavenging and Stress-related Proteins in Streptomyces griseus.
Z. Birko, M. Swiatek, E. Szajli, K. F. Medzihradszky, E. Vijgenboom, A. Penyige, J. Keseru, G. P. van Wezel, and S. Biro (2009)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8, 2396-2403
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Paenibacillus dendritiformis Bacterial Colony Growth Depends on Surfactant but Not on Bacterial Motion.
A. Be'er, R. S. Smith, H. P. Zhang, E.-L. Florin, S. M. Payne, and H. L. Swinney (2009)
J. Bacteriol. 191, 5758-5764
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
From damaged genome to cell surface: transcriptome changes during bacterial cell death triggered by loss of a restriction-modification gene complex.
Y. Asakura and I. Kobayashi (2009)
Nucleic Acids Res. 37, 3021-3031
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plasmid pAMS1-Encoded, Bacteriocin-Related "Siblicide" in Enterococcus faecalis.
C. M. Sedgley, D. B. Clewell, and S. E. Flannagan (2009)
J. Bacteriol. 191, 3183-3188
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oscillations in continuous culture populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae: population dynamics and the evolution of clonal suicide.
O. E Cornejo, D. E Rozen, R. M May, and B. R Levin (2009)
Proc R Soc B 276, 999-1008
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies.
A. Be'er, H. P. Zhang, E.-L. Florin, S. M. Payne, E. Ben-Jacob, and H. L. Swinney (2009)
PNAS 106, 428-433
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Development and Application of Flow-Cytometric Techniques for Analyzing and Sorting Endospore-Forming Clostridia.
B. P. Tracy, S. M. Gaida, and E. T. Papoutsakis (2008)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 74, 7497-7506
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effect of Temperature on the Cannibalistic Behavior of Bacillus subtilis.
S. K. Nandy, V. Prasad, and K. V. Venkatesh (2008)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 74, 7427-7430
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Parallel pathways of repression and antirepression governing the transition to stationary phase in Bacillus subtilis.
A. V. Banse, A. Chastanet, L. Rahn-Lee, E. C. Hobbs, and R. Losick (2008)
PNAS 105, 15547-15552
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Two distinct arabinofuranosidases contribute to arabino-oligosaccharide degradation in Bacillus subtilis.
J. M. Inacio, I. L. Correia, and I. de Sa-Nogueira (2008)
Microbiology 154, 2719-2729
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of Autolysis-Dependent Extracellular DNA Release by Enterococcus faecalis Extracellular Proteases Influences Biofilm Development.
V. C. Thomas, L. R. Thurlow, D. Boyle, and L. E. Hancock (2008)
J. Bacteriol. 190, 5690-5698
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hydrogen Peroxide Linked to Lysine Oxidase Activity Facilitates Biofilm Differentiation and Dispersal in Several Gram-Negative Bacteria.
A. Mai-Prochnow, P. Lucas-Elio, S. Egan, T. Thomas, J. S. Webb, A. Sanchez-Amat, and S. Kjelleberg (2008)
J. Bacteriol. 190, 5493-5501
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Feast or famine: the global regulator DasR links nutrient stress to antibiotic production by Streptomyces.
S. Rigali, F. Titgemeyer, S. Barends, S. Mulder, A. W. Thomae, D. A. Hopwood, and G. P. van Wezel (2008)
EMBO Rep. 9, 670-675
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stochasticity and Cell Fate.
R. Losick and C. Desplan (2008)
Science 320, 65-68
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community.
H. Vlamakis, C. Aguilar, R. Losick, and R. Kolter (2008)
Genes & Dev. 22, 945-953
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bet-hedging and epigenetic inheritance in bacterial cell development.
J.-W. Veening, E. J. Stewart, T. W. Berngruber, F. Taddei, O. P. Kuipers, and L. W. Hamoen (2008)
PNAS 105, 4393-4398
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Control of Bacterial Death and Lysis.
K. C. Rice and K. W. Bayles (2008)
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 72, 85-109
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recovery of Spores from Thermophilic Dairy Bacilli and Effects of Their Surface Characteristics on Attachment to Different Surfaces.
R. B. Seale, S. H. Flint, A. J. McQuillan, and P. J. Bremer (2008)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 74, 731-737
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Abh and AbrB Control of Bacillus subtilis Antimicrobial Gene Expression.
M. A. Strauch, B. G. Bobay, J. Cavanagh, F. Yao, A. Wilson, and Y. Le Breton (2007)
J. Bacteriol. 189, 7720-7732
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Linear Pentapeptide Is a Quorum-Sensing Factor Required for mazEF-Mediated Cell Death in Escherichia coli.
I. Kolodkin-Gal, R. Hazan, A. Gaathon, S. Carmeli, and H. Engelberg-Kulka (2007)
Science 318, 652-655
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Model-based Definition of Population Heterogeneity and Its Effects on Metabolism in Sporulating Bacillus subtilis.
M. Morohashi, Y. Ohashi, S. Tani, K. Ishii, M. Itaya, H. Nanamiya, F. Kawamura, M. Tomita, and T. Soga (2007)
J. Biochem. 142, 183-191
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Novel Iso-branched Ether Lipids as Specific Markers of Developmental Sporulation in the Myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus.
M. W. Ring, G. Schwar, V. Thiel, J. S. Dickschat, R. M. Kroppenstedt, S. Schulz, and H. B. Bode (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36691-36700
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ecological Advantages of Autolysis during the Development and Dispersal of Pseudoalteromonas tunicata Biofilms.
A. Mai-Prochnow, J. S. Webb, B. C. Ferrari, and S. Kjelleberg (2006)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 72, 5414-5420
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphate Starvation Induces the Sporulation Killing Factor of Bacillus subtilis.
N. E. E. Allenby, C. A. Watts, G. Homuth, Z. Pragai, A. Wipat, A. C. Ward, and C. R. Harwood (2006)
J. Bacteriol. 188, 5299-5303
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evidence for a novel protease governing regulated intramembrane proteolysis and resistance to antimicrobial peptides in Bacillus subtilis.
C. D. Ellermeier and R. Losick (2006)
Genes & Dev. 20, 1911-1922
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cannibalism of Live Lymphocytes by Human Metastatic but Not Primary Melanoma Cells.
L. Lugini, P. Matarrese, A. Tinari, F. Lozupone, C. Federici, E. Iessi, M. Gentile, F. Luciani, G. Parmiani, L. Rivoltini, et al. (2006)
Cancer Res. 66, 3629-3638
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spo0A-Dependent Activation of an Extended -10 Region Promoter in Bacillus subtilis.
G. Chen, A. Kumar, T. H. Wyman, and C. P. Moran Jr. (2006)
J. Bacteriol. 188, 1411-1418
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cell population heterogeneity during growth of Bacillus subtilis.
D. B. Kearns and R. Losick (2005)
Genes & Dev. 19, 3083-3094
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genome-Wide Transcriptional Analysis of the Phosphate Starvation Stimulon of Bacillus subtilis.
N. E. E. Allenby, N. O'Connor, Z. Pragai, A. C. Ward, A. Wipat, and C. R. Harwood (2005)
J. Bacteriol. 187, 8063-8080
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A death round affecting a young compartmentalized mycelium precedes aerial mycelium dismantling in confluent surface cultures of Streptomyces antibioticus.
A. Manteca, M. Fernandez, and J. Sanchez (2005)
Microbiology 151, 3689-3697
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
mazEF: a chromosomal toxin-antitoxin module that triggers programmed cell death in bacteria.
H. Engelberg-Kulka, R. Hazan, and S. Amitai (2005)
J. Cell Sci. 118, 4327-4332
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Independent and Interchangeable Multimerization Domains of the AbrB, Abh, and SpoVT Global Regulatory Proteins.
F. Yao and M. A. Strauch (2005)
J. Bacteriol. 187, 6354-6362
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evidence that entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is governed by a gradual increase in the level and activity of the master regulator Spo0A.
M. Fujita and R. Losick (2005)
Genes & Dev. 19, 2236-2244
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Viruses activate a genetically conserved cell death pathway in a unicellular organism.
I. Ivanovska and J. M. Hardwick (2005)
J. Cell Biol. 170, 391-399
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tricksy Business: Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Involvement of Thioredoxin A in Redox Homeostasis, Oxidative Stress, Sulfur Metabolism, and Cellular Differentiation in Bacillus subtilis.
W. K. Smits, J.-Y. F. Dubois, S. Bron, J. M. van Dijl, and O. P. Kuipers (2005)
J. Bacteriol. 187, 3921-3930
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
From The Cover: Competence-programmed predation of noncompetent cells in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: Genetic requirements.
S. Guiral, T. J. Mitchell, B. Martin, and J.-P. Claverys (2005)
PNAS 102, 8710-8715
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The selective advantage of microbial fratricide.
M. S. Gilmore and W. Haas (2005)
PNAS 102, 8401-8402
   Full Text »    PDF »
Am J Trop Med Hyg 72, 732-738
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genes Involved in SkfA Killing Factor Production Protect a Bacillus subtilis Lipase against Proteolysis.
H. Westers, P. G. Braun, L. Westers, H. Antelmann, M. Hecker, J. D. H. Jongbloed, H. Yoshikawa, T. Tanaka, J. M. van Dijl, and W. J. Quax (2005)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 71, 1899-1908
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Rok Protein of Bacillus subtilis Represses Genes for Cell Surface and Extracellular Functions.
M. Albano, W. K. Smits, L. T. Y. Ho, B. Kraigher, I. Mandic-Mulec, O. P. Kuipers, and D. Dubnau (2005)
J. Bacteriol. 187, 2010-2019
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High- and Low-Threshold Genes in the Spo0A Regulon of Bacillus subtilis.
M. Fujita, J. E. Gonzalez-Pastor, and R. Losick (2005)
J. Bacteriol. 187, 1357-1368
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast.
Y. Fannjiang, W.-C. Cheng, S. J. Lee, B. Qi, J. Pevsner, J. M. McCaffery, R. B. Hill, G. Basanez, and J. M. Hardwick (2004)
Genes & Dev. 18, 2785-2797
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Visualization of Differential Gene Expression by Improved Cyan Fluorescent Protein and Yellow Fluorescent Protein Production in Bacillus subtilis.
J.-W. Veening, W. K. Smits, L. W. Hamoen, J. D. H. Jongbloed, and O. P. Kuipers (2004)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 70, 6809-6815
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hetero- and Autoprocessing of the Extracellular Metalloprotease (Mpr) in Bacillus subtilis.
C. H. Park, S. J. Lee, S. G. Lee, W. S. Lee, and S. M. Byun (2004)
J. Bacteriol. 186, 6457-6464
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Anaerobic Growth of Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis Requires Deoxyribonucleosides or DNA.
M. J. Folmsbee, M. J. McInerney, and D. P. Nagle (2004)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 70, 5252-5257
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Biofilm Development and Cell Death in the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata.
A. Mai-Prochnow, F. Evans, D. Dalisay-Saludes, S. Stelzer, S. Egan, S. James, J. S. Webb, and S. Kjelleberg (2004)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 70, 3232-3238
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Escherichia coli mazEF-Mediated Cell Death Is Triggered by Various Stressful Conditions.
R. Hazan, B. Sat, and H. Engelberg-Kulka (2004)
J. Bacteriol. 186, 3663-3669
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Subtilosin Production by Two Bacillus subtilis Subspecies and Variance of the sbo-alb Cluster.
T. Stein, S. Dusterhus, A. Stroh, and K.-D. Entian (2004)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 70, 2349-2353
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Compartmentalization of Gene Expression during Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis Is Compromised in Mutants Blocked at Stage III of Sporulation.
Z. Li, F. Di Donato, and P. J. Piggot (2004)
J. Bacteriol. 186, 2221-2223
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Genomics of Gram-Positive Microorganisms.
M. Perego, J. A. Hoch, and J. F. Barrett (2004)
J. Bacteriol. 186, 903-909
   Full Text »    PDF »
MICROBIOLOGY: Cannibals Defy Starvation and Avoid Sporulation.
H. Engelberg-Kulka and R. Hazan (2003)
Science 301, 467-468
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882