Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 302 (5645): 654-659

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Immune Control of Tuberculosis by IFN-{gamma}-Inducible LRG-47

John D. MacMicking,1* Gregory A. Taylor,2,3 John D. McKinney1

Abstract: Interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) provides an essential component of immunity to tuberculosis by activating infected host macrophages to directly inhibit the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). IFN-{gamma}–inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) is considered a principal effector mechanism, although other pathways may also exist. Here, we identify one member of a newly emerging 47-kilodalton (p47) guanosine triphosphatase family, LRG-47, that acts independently of NOS2 to protect against disease. Mice lacking LRG-47 failed to control Mtb replication, unlike those missing the related p47 guanosine triphosphatases IRG-47 or IGTP. Defective bacterial killing in IFN-{gamma}–activated LRG-47–/– macrophages was associated with impaired maturation of Mtb-containing phagosomes, vesicles that otherwise recruited LRG-47 in wild-type cells. Thus, LRG-47 may serve as a critical vacuolar trafficking component used to dispose of intracellular pathogens like Mtb.

1 Laboratory of Infection Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.
2 Department of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Division of Geriatrics, and Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA.
3 Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Durham Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: macmicj{at}

Role of autophagy genetic variants for the risk of Candida infections.
D. C. Rosentul, T. S. Plantinga, M. Farcas, M. Oosting, O. J. M. Hamza, W. K. Scott, B. D. Alexander, J. C. Yang, G. M. Laird, L. A. B. Joosten, et al. (2014)
Med Mycol
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Host-Directed Therapeutics for Tuberculosis: Can We Harness the Host?.
T. R. Hawn, A. I. Matheson, S. N. Maley, and O. Vandal (2013)
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 77, 608-627
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Irgm1-deficient mice exhibit Paneth cell abnormalities and increased susceptibility to acute intestinal inflammation.
B. Liu, A. S. Gulati, V. Cantillana, S. C. Henry, E. A. Schmidt, X. Daniell, E. Grossniklaus, A. A. Schoenborn, R. B. Sartor, and G. A. Taylor (2013)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 305, G573-G584
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exploits Human Interferon {gamma} to Stimulate Macrophage Extracellular Trap Formation and Necrosis.
K.-W. Wong and W. R. Jacobs Jr (2013)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 208, 109-119
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pre-treatment with Mycobacterium avium-derived lipids reduces the macrophage response to interferon {gamma} in BCG-vaccinated mice.
D. Yang, B. Liu, X. Hou, D. Jiao, X. Li, L. Wen, P. Zhu, and N. Fu (2013)
J. Med. Microbiol. 62, 980-987
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Substrate Specificity of MarP, a Periplasmic Protease Required for Resistance to Acid and Oxidative Stress in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
J. L. Small, A. J. O'Donoghue, E. C. Boritsch, O. V. Tsodikov, G. M. Knudsen, O. Vandal, C. S. Craik, and S. Ehrt (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 12489-12499
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-1{beta} Promotes Antimicrobial Immunity in Macrophages by Regulating TNFR Signaling and Caspase-3 Activation.
P. Jayaraman, I. Sada-Ovalle, T. Nishimura, A. C. Anderson, V. K. Kuchroo, H. G. Remold, and S. M. Behar (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 4196-4204
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Requires Phosphate-Responsive Gene Regulation To Resist Host Immunity.
A. D. Tischler, R. L. Leistikow, M. A. Kirksey, M. I. Voskuil, and J. D. McKinney (2013)
Infect. Immun. 81, 317-328
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Abelson Tyrosine Kinase Controls Phagosomal Acidification Required for Killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages.
H. Bruns, F. Stegelmann, M. Fabri, K. Dohner, G. van Zandbergen, M. Wagner, M. Skinner, R. L. Modlin, and S. Stenger (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 4069-4078
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitizes Mycobacterium tuberculosis to endogenous and exogenous antimicrobials.
B. Gold, M. Pingle, S. J. Brickner, N. Shah, J. Roberts, M. Rundell, W. C. Bracken, T. Warrier, S. Somersan, A. Venugopal, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, 16004-16011
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The GTPase Activity of Murine Guanylate-binding Protein 2 (mGBP2) Controls the Intracellular Localization and Recruitment to the Parasitophorous Vacuole of Toxoplasma gondii.
E. Kravets, D. Degrandi, S. Weidtkamp-Peters, B. Ries, C. Konermann, S. Felekyan, J. M. Dargazanli, G. J. K. Praefcke, C. A. M. Seidel, L. Schmitt, et al. (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 27452-27466
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Urease Activity Represents an Alternative Pathway for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nitrogen Metabolism.
W. Lin, V. Mathys, E. L. Y. Ang, V. H. Q. Koh, J. M. Martinez Gomez, M. L. T. Ang, S. Z. Zainul Rahim, M. P. Tan, K. Pethe, and S. Alonso (2012)
Infect. Immun. 80, 2771-2779
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IFN-{gamma} Elicits Macrophage Autophagy via the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.
T. Matsuzawa, B.-H. Kim, A. R. Shenoy, S. Kamitani, M. Miyake, and J. D. MacMicking (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 813-818
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GBP5 Promotes NLRP3 Inflammasome Assembly and Immunity in Mammals.
A. R. Shenoy, D. A. Wellington, P. Kumar, H. Kassa, C. J. Booth, P. Cresswell, and J. D. MacMicking (2012)
Science 336, 481-485
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of neutrophils by interferon-{gamma} limits lung inflammation during tuberculosis infection.
B. Nandi and S. M. Behar (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 2251-2262
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM) Proteins Influence the Localization of Guanylate-binding Protein 2 (GBP2) by Modulating Macroautophagy.
M. K. Traver, S. C. Henry, V. Cantillana, T. Oliver, J. P. Hunn, J. C. Howard, S. Beer, K. Pfeffer, J. Coers, and G. A. Taylor (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 30471-30480
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Irgm1 protects hematopoietic stem cells by negative regulation of IFN signaling.
K. Y. King, M. T. Baldridge, D. C. Weksberg, S. M. Chambers, G. L. Lukov, S. Wu, N. C. Boles, S. Y. Jung, J. Qin, D. Liu, et al. (2011)
Blood 118, 1525-1533
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Family of IFN-{gamma}-Inducible 65-kD GTPases Protects Against Bacterial Infection.
B.-H. Kim, A. R. Shenoy, P. Kumar, R. Das, S. Tiwari, and J. D. MacMicking (2011)
Science 332, 717-721
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nitric Oxide-Mediated Intracellular Growth Restriction of Pathogenic Rhodococcus equi Can Be Prevented by Iron.
K. von Bargen, J. Wohlmann, G. A. Taylor, O. Utermohlen, and A. Haas (2011)
Infect. Immun. 79, 2098-2111
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NLRP4 Negatively Regulates Autophagic Processes through an Association with Beclin1.
N. Jounai, K. Kobiyama, M. Shiina, K. Ogata, K. J. Ishii, and F. Takeshita (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 1646-1655
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tim3 binding to galectin-9 stimulates antimicrobial immunity.
P. Jayaraman, I. Sada-Ovalle, S. Beladi, A. C. Anderson, V. Dardalhon, C. Hotta, V. K. Kuchroo, and S. M. Behar (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 2343-2354
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endothelial cells are damaged by autophagic induction before hepatocytes in Con A-induced acute hepatitis.
M.-C. Yang, C.-P. Chang, and H.-Y. Lei (2010)
Int. Immunol. 22, 661-670
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence mutants identified by screening in isoniazid-treated mice.
N. Dhar and J. D. McKinney (2010)
PNAS 107, 12275-12280
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Killing of non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis by 8-hydroxyquinoline.
C. M. Darby and C. F. Nathan (2010)
J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 65, 1424-1427
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic deficiency of Irgm1 (LRG-47) suppresses induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by promoting apoptosis of activated CD4+ T cells.
H. Xu, Z. Y. Wu, F. Fang, L. Guo, D. Chen, J. X. Chen, D. Stern, G. A. Taylor, H. Jiang, and S. S. Yan (2010)
FASEB J 24, 1583-1592
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-32 Is a Host Protective Cytokine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Differentiated THP-1 Human Macrophages.
X. Bai, S.-H. Kim, T. Azam, M. T. McGibney, H. Huang, C. A. Dinarello, and E. D. Chan (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 3830-3840
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of macrophage motility by Irgm1.
S. C. Henry, M. Traver, X. Daniell, M. Indaram, T. Oliver, and G. A. Taylor (2010)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 87, 333-343
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IFN-{gamma}-Dependent Activation of Macrophages during Experimental Infections by Mycobacterium ulcerans Is Impaired by the Toxin Mycolactone.
E. Torrado, A. G. Fraga, E. Logarinho, T. G. Martins, J. A. Carmona, J. B. Gama, M. A. Carvalho, F. Proenca, A. G. Castro, and J. Pedrosa (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 947-955
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phthiocerol Dimycocerosate Transport Is Required for Resisting Interferon-{gamma}-Independent Immunity.
J. P. Murry, A. K. Pandey, C. M. Sassetti, and E. J. Rubin (2009)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 200, 774-782
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Expressing the Chimeric Protein of Antigen 85B and ESAT-6 Enhances the Th1 Cell-Mediated Response.
Y. Xu, W. Liu, H. Shen, J. Yan, D. Qu, and H. Wang (2009)
Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16, 1121-1126
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Acid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
O. H. Vandal, C. F. Nathan, and S. Ehrt (2009)
J. Bacteriol. 191, 4714-4721
   Full Text »    PDF »
Autocrine IL-10 Induces Hallmarks of Alternative Activation in Macrophages and Suppresses Antituberculosis Effector Mechanisms without Compromising T Cell Immunity.
T. Schreiber, S. Ehlers, L. Heitmann, A. Rausch, J. Mages, P. J. Murray, R. Lang, and C. Holscher (2009)
J. Immunol. 183, 1301-1312
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Balance of Irgm protein activities determines IFN-{gamma}-induced host defense.
S. C. Henry, X. G. Daniell, A. R. Burroughs, M. Indaram, D. N. Howell, J. Coers, M. N. Starnbach, J. P. Hunn, J. C. Howard, C. G. Feng, et al. (2009)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 85, 877-885
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Real-time imaging of Leishmania mexicana-infected early phagosomes: a study using primary macrophages generated from green fluorescent protein-Rab5 transgenic mice.
C. Lippuner, D. Paape, A. Paterou, J. Brand, M. Richardson, A. J. Smith, K. Hoffmann, V. Brinkmann, C. Blackburn, and T. Aebischer (2009)
FASEB J 23, 483-491
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Acid-Susceptible Mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Share Hypersusceptibility to Cell Wall and Oxidative Stress and to the Host Environment.
O. H. Vandal, J. A. Roberts, T. Odaira, D. Schnappinger, C. F. Nathan, and S. Ehrt (2009)
J. Bacteriol. 191, 625-631
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockers Influence Macrophage Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
J. Harris, J. C. Hope, and J. Keane (2008)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 198, 1842-1850
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Experimental Malaria Infection Triggers Early Expansion of Natural Killer Cells.
C. C. Kim, S. Parikh, J. C. Sun, A. Myrick, L. L. Lanier, P. J. Rosenthal, and J. L. DeRisi (2008)
Infect. Immun. 76, 5873-5882
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inactive and Active States of the Interferon-inducible Resistance GTPase, Irga6, in Vivo.
N. Papic, J. P. Hunn, N. Pawlowski, J. Zerrahn, and J. C. Howard (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 32143-32151
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Gamma Interferon (IFN-{gamma})-Inducible GTP-Binding Protein IGTP Is Necessary for Toxoplasma Vacuolar Disruption and Induces Parasite Egression in IFN-{gamma}-Stimulated Astrocytes.
T. Melzer, A. Duffy, L. M. Weiss, and S. K. Halonen (2008)
Infect. Immun. 76, 4883-4894
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LspA inactivation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in attenuation without affecting phagosome maturation arrest.
S. K. Rampini, P. Selchow, C. Keller, S. Ehlers, E. C. Bottger, and P. Sander (2008)
Microbiology 154, 2991-3001
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chlamydia muridarum Evades Growth Restriction by the IFN-{gamma}-Inducible Host Resistance Factor Irgb10.
J. Coers, I. Bernstein-Hanley, D. Grotsky, I. Parvanova, J. C. Howard, G. A. Taylor, W. F. Dietrich, and M. N. Starnbach (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 6237-6245
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modulation of the Phagosome Proteome by Interferon-{gamma}.
I. Jutras, M. Houde, N. Currier, J. Boulais, S. Duclos, S. LaBoissiere, E. Bonneil, P. Kearney, P. Thibault, E. Paramithiotis, et al. (2008)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 7, 697-715
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mycobacterial persistence requires the utilization of host cholesterol.
A. K. Pandey and C. M. Sassetti (2008)
PNAS 105, 4376-4380
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CARD6 Is Interferon Inducible but Not Involved in Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain Protein Signaling Leading to NF-{kappa}B Activation.
A. Dufner, G. S. Duncan, A. Wakeham, A. R. Elford, H. T. Hall, P. S. Ohashi, and T. W. Mak (2008)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 28, 1541-1552
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Progression of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Efficiency of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Are Genetically Controlled via a Common sst1-Mediated Mechanism of Innate Immunity.
B.-S. Yan, A. V. Pichugin, O. Jobe, L. Helming, E. B. Eruslanov, J. A. Gutierrez-Pabello, M. Rojas, Y. V. Shebzukhov, L. Kobzik, and I. Kramnik (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 6919-6932
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired Macrophage Function Underscores Susceptibility to Salmonella in Mice Lacking Irgm1 (LRG-47).
S. C. Henry, X. Daniell, M. Indaram, J. F. Whitesides, G. D. Sempowski, D. Howell, T. Oliver, and G. A. Taylor (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 6963-6972
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The IFN-Inducible GTPase LRG47 (Irgm1) Negatively Regulates TLR4-Triggered Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Prevents Endotoxemia.
A. Bafica, C. G. Feng, H. C. Santiago, J. Aliberti, A. Cheever, K. E. Thomas, G. A. Taylor, S. N. Vogel, and A. Sher (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 5514-5522
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rapid Elimination of Toxoplasma gondii by Gamma Interferon-Primed Mouse Macrophages Is Independent of CD40 Signaling.
Y. Zhao, D. Wilson, S. Matthews, and G. S. Yap (2007)
Infect. Immun. 75, 4799-4803
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of Vacuolar pH and Its Modulation by Some Microbial Species.
K. K. Huynh and S. Grinstein (2007)
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 71, 452-462
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lipoamide dehydrogenase mediates retention of coronin-1 on BCG vacuoles, leading to arrest in phagosome maturation.
A.-E. Deghmane, H. Soualhine, H. Bach, K. Sendide, S. Itoh, A. Tam, S. Noubir, A. Talal, R. Lo, S. Toyoshima, et al. (2007)
J. Cell Sci. 120, 2796-2806
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nuclear receptor ERR{alpha} and coactivator PGC-1beta are effectors of IFN-{gamma}-induced host defense.
J. Sonoda, J. Laganiere, I. R. Mehl, G. D. Barish, L.-W. Chong, X. Li, I. E. Scheffler, D. C. Mock, A. R. Bataille, F. Robert, et al. (2007)
Genes & Dev. 21, 1909-1920
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-1 Receptor-Mediated Signal Is an Essential Component of MyD88-Dependent Innate Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.
C. M. Fremond, D. Togbe, E. Doz, S. Rose, V. Vasseur, I. Maillet, M. Jacobs, B. Ryffel, and V. F. J. Quesniaux (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 1178-1189
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IFN-{gamma}- and TNF-Independent Vitamin D-Inducible Human Suppression of Mycobacteria: The Role of Cathelicidin LL-37.
A. R. Martineau, K. A. Wilkinson, S. M. Newton, R. A. Floto, A. W. Norman, K. Skolimowska, R. N. Davidson, O. E. Sorensen, B. Kampmann, C. J. Griffiths, et al. (2007)
J. Immunol. 178, 7190-7198
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lysosomal killing of Mycobacterium mediated by ubiquitin-derived peptides is enhanced by autophagy.
S. Alonso, K. Pethe, D. G. Russell, and G. E. Purdy (2007)
PNAS 104, 6031-6036
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Chemokine Receptor CXCR3 Attenuates the Control of Chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in BALB/c Mice.
S. D. Chakravarty, J. Xu, B. Lu, C. Gerard, J. Flynn, and J. Chan (2007)
J. Immunol. 178, 1723-1735
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The SecA2 Secretion Factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Promotes Growth in Macrophages and Inhibits the Host Immune Response.
S. Kurtz, K. P. McKinnon, M. S. Runge, J. P.-Y. Ting, and M. Braunstein (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 6855-6864
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Subverts Innate Immunity to Evade Specific Effectors.
C. Loeuillet, F. Martinon, C. Perez, M. Munoz, M. Thome, and P. R. Meylan (2006)
J. Immunol. 177, 6245-6255
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The p47 GTPases Igtp and Irgb10 map to the Chlamydia trachomatis susceptibility locus Ctrq-3 and mediate cellular resistance in mice.
I. Bernstein-Hanley, J. Coers, Z. R. Balsara, G. A. Taylor, M. N. Starnbach, and W. F. Dietrich (2006)
PNAS 103, 14092-14097
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human IRGM Induces Autophagy to Eliminate Intracellular Mycobacteria.
S. B. Singh, A. S. Davis, G. A. Taylor, and V. Deretic (2006)
Science 313, 1438-1441
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Processing and Presentation of a Mycobacterial Antigen 85B Epitope by Murine Macrophages Is Dependent on the Phagosomal Acquisition of Vacuolar Proton ATPase and In Situ Activation of Cathepsin D..
C. R. Singh, R. A. Moulton, L. Y. Armitige, A. Bidani, M. Snuggs, S. Dhandayuthapani, R. L. Hunter, and C. Jagannath (2006)
J. Immunol. 177, 3250-3259
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Macrophage nutriprive antimicrobial mechanisms.
R. Appelberg (2006)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 79, 1117-1128
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
STAT1 Regulates IFN-{alpha}beta- and IFN-{gamma}-Dependent Control of Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae by Nonhemopoietic Cells..
A. G. Rothfuchs, C. Trumstedt, F. Mattei, G. Schiavoni, A. Hidmark, H. Wigzell, and M. E. Rottenberg (2006)
J. Immunol. 176, 6982-6990
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Partial Reconstitution of the CD4+-T-Cell Compartment in CD4 Gene Knockout Mice Restores Responses to Tuberculosis DNA Vaccines.
S. D'Souza, M. Romano, J. Korf, X.-M. Wang, P.-Y. Adnet, and K. Huygen (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 2751-2759
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deletion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resuscitation-Promoting Factor Rv1009 Gene Results in Delayed Reactivation from Chronic Tuberculosis.
J. M. Tufariello, K. Mi, J. Xu, Y. C. Manabe, A. K. Kesavan, J. Drumm, K. Tanaka, W. R. Jacobs Jr., and J. Chan (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 2985-2995
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of Phagosomes and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II (MHC-II) Compartment in MHC-II Antigen Processing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages.
M. Torres, L. Ramachandra, R. E. Rojas, K. Bobadilla, J. Thomas, D. H. Canaday, C. V. Harding, and W. H. Boom (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 1621-1630
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Enzymes Are Not Required by Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages for the Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vitro.
O. H. Vandal, M. H. Gelb, S. Ehrt, and C. F. Nathan (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 1751-1756
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The lupus-susceptibility locus, sle3, mediates enhanced resistance to bacterial infections..
B. Mehrad, S. J. Park, G. Akangire, T. J. Standiford, T. Wu, J. Zhu, and C. Mohan (2006)
J. Immunol. 176, 3233-3239
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Selectin Ligand-Independent Priming and Maintenance of T Cell Immunity during Airborne Tuberculosis.
T. Schreiber, S. Ehlers, S. Aly, A. Holscher, S. Hartmann, M. Lipp, J. B. Lowe, and C. Holscher (2006)
J. Immunol. 176, 1131-1140
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dihydrolipoamide Acyltransferase Is Critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis.
S. Shi and S. Ehrt (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 56-63
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mice Deficient in LRG-47 Display Enhanced Susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Associated with Defective Hemopoiesis and Intracellular Control of Parasite Growth.
H. C. Santiago, C. G. Feng, A. Bafica, E. Roffe, R. M. Arantes, A. Cheever, G. Taylor, L. Q. Vierira, J. Aliberti, R. T. Gazzinelli, et al. (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 8165-8172
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vaccines for Tuberculosis: Novel Concepts and Recent Progress.
T. M. Doherty and P. Andersen (2005)
Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18, 687-702
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Increased Susceptibility of Mice Lacking T-bet to Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Correlates with Increased IL-10 and Decreased IFN-{gamma} Production.
B. M. Sullivan, O. Jobe, V. Lazarevic, K. Vasquez, R. Bronson, L. H. Glimcher, and I. Kramnik (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 4593-4602
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Repression of SPI2 transcription by nitric oxide-producing, IFN{gamma}-activated macrophages promotes maturation of Salmonella phagosomes.
B. D. McCollister, T. J. Bourret, R. Gill, J. Jones-Carson, and A. Vazquez-Torres (2005)
J. Exp. Med. 202, 625-635
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chlamydial IFN-{gamma} immune evasion is linked to host infection tropism.
D. E. Nelson, D. P. Virok, H. Wood, C. Roshick, R. M. Johnson, W. M. Whitmire, D. D. Crane, O. Steele-Mortimer, L. Kari, G. McClarty, et al. (2005)
PNAS 102, 10658-10663
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CD4-CD8- T cells control intracellular bacterial infections both in vitro and in vivo.
S. C. Cowley, E. Hamilton, J. A. Frelinger, J. Su, J. Forman, and K. L. Elkins (2005)
J. Exp. Med. 202, 309-319
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-23 Compensates for the Absence of IL-12p70 and Is Essential for the IL-17 Response during Tuberculosis but Is Dispensable for Protection and Antigen-Specific IFN-{gamma} Responses if IL-12p70 Is Available.
S. A. Khader, J. E. Pearl, K. Sakamoto, L. Gilmartin, G. K. Bell, D. M. Jelley-Gibbs, N. Ghilardi, F. deSauvage, and A. M. Cooper (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 788-795
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Golgi targeting of human guanylate-binding protein-1 requires nucleotide binding, isoprenylation, and an IFN-{gamma}-inducible cofactor.
N. Modiano, Y. E. Lu, and P. Cresswell (2005)
PNAS 102, 8680-8685
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
p47 GTPases Regulate Toxoplasma gondii Survival in Activated Macrophages.
B. A. Butcher, R. I. Greene, S. C. Henry, K. L. Annecharico, J. B. Weinberg, E. Y. Denkers, A. Sher, and G. A. Taylor (2005)
Infect. Immun. 73, 3278-3286
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prevention of Relapse after Chemotherapy in a Chronic Intracellular Infection: Mechanisms in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.
H. W. Murray (2005)
J. Immunol. 174, 4916-4923
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The IL-27 Receptor Chain WSX-1 Differentially Regulates Antibacterial Immunity and Survival during Experimental Tuberculosis.
C. Holscher, A. Holscher, D. Ruckerl, T. Yoshimoto, H. Yoshida, T. Mak, C. Saris, and S. Ehlers (2005)
J. Immunol. 174, 3534-3544
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanism of phagolysosome biogenesis block by viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
I. Vergne, J. Chua, H.-H. Lee, M. Lucas, J. Belisle, and V. Deretic (2005)
PNAS 102, 4033-4038
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phagosomal Processing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen 85B Is Modulated Independently of Mycobacterial Viability and Phagosome Maturation.
L. Ramachandra, J. L. Smialek, S. S. Shank, M. Convery, W. H. Boom, and C. V. Harding (2005)
Infect. Immun. 73, 1097-1105
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Proteomic Analysis of Lysosomal Integral Membrane Proteins Reveals the Diverse Composition of the Organelle.
R. D. Bagshaw, D. J. Mahuran, and J. W. Callahan (2005)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 4, 133-143
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
S-nitroso proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Enzymes of intermediary metabolism and antioxidant defense.
K. Y. Rhee, H. Erdjument-Bromage, P. Tempst, and C. F. Nathan (2005)
PNAS 102, 467-472
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Replication Dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Chronically Infected Mice.
E. J. Munoz-Elias, J. Timm, T. Botha, W.-T. Chan, J. E. Gomez, and J. D. McKinney (2005)
Infect. Immun. 73, 546-551
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-27 Signaling Compromises Control of Bacterial Growth in Mycobacteria-Infected Mice.
J. E. Pearl, S. A. Khader, A. Solache, L. Gilmartin, N. Ghilardi, F. deSauvage, and A. M. Cooper (2004)
J. Immunol. 173, 7490-7496
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evaluation of an In Vitro Assay for Gamma Interferon Production in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections.
E. W. Taggart, H. R. Hill, R. G. Ruegner, T. B. Martins, and C. M. Litwin (2004)
Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 11, 1089-1093
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prolonged Toll-Like Receptor Signaling by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its 19-Kilodalton Lipoprotein Inhibits Gamma Interferon-Induced Regulation of Selected Genes in Macrophages.
R. K. Pai, M. E. Pennini, A. A. R. Tobian, D. H. Canaday, W. H. Boom, and C. V. Harding (2004)
Infect. Immun. 72, 6603-6614
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human RAS Superfamily Proteins and Related GTPases.
J. Colicelli (2004)
Sci. STKE 2004, re13
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Counterimmune (cim) Mutants in Immunodeficient Mice by Differential Screening.
K. B. Hisert, M. A. Kirksey, J. E. Gomez, A. O. Sousa, J. S. Cox, W. R. Jacobs Jr., C. F. Nathan, and J. D. McKinney (2004)
Infect. Immun. 72, 5315-5321
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms Regulating the Positioning of Mouse p47 Resistance GTPases LRG-47 and IIGP1 on Cellular Membranes: Retargeting to Plasma Membrane Induced by Phagocytosis.
S. Martens, K. Sabel, R. Lange, R. Uthaiah, E. Wolf, and J. C. Howard (2004)
J. Immunol. 173, 2594-2606
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mice Deficient in LRG-47 Display Increased Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection Associated with the Induction of Lymphopenia.
C. G. Feng, C. M. Collazo-Custodio, M. Eckhaus, S. Hieny, Y. Belkaid, K. Elkins, D. Jankovic, G. A. Taylor, and A. Sher (2004)
J. Immunol. 172, 1163-1168
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential expression of iron-, carbon-, and oxygen-responsive mycobacterial genes in the lungs of chronically infected mice and tuberculosis patients.
J. Timm, F. A. Post, L.-G. Bekker, G. B. Walther, H. C. Wainwright, R. Manganelli, W.-T. Chan, L. Tsenova, B. Gold, I. Smith, et al. (2003)
PNAS 100, 14321-14326
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882