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Science 302 (5651): 1751-1754

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Regulation of Flowering Time by Histone Acetylation in Arabidopsis

Yuehui He, Scott D. Michaels, Richard M. Amasino*

Abstract: The Arabidopsis autonomous floral-promotion pathway promotes flowering independently of the photoperiod and vernalization pathways by repressing FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a MADS-boxtranscription factor that blocks the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Here, we report that FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD), one of sixgenes in the autonomous pathway, encodes a plant homolog of a protein found in histone deacetylase complexes in mammals. Lesions in FLD result in hyperacetylation of histones in FLC chromatin, up-regulation of FLC expression, and extremely delayed flowering. Thus, the autonomous pathway regulates flowering in part by histone deacetylation. However, not all autonomous-pathway mutants exhibit FLC hyperacetylation, indicating that multiple means exist by which this pathway represses FLC expression.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: amasino{at}

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