Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 302 (5651): 1760-1765

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Inflammatory Blockade Restores Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Michelle L. Monje, Hiroki Toda, Theo D. Palmer*

Abstract: Cranial radiation therapy causes a progressive decline in cognitive function that is linked to impaired neurogenesis. Chronic inflammation accompanies radiation injury, suggesting that inflammatory processes may contribute to neural stem cell dysfunction. Here, we show that neuroinflammation alone inhibits neurogenesis and that inflammatory blockade with indomethacin, a common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, restores neurogenesis after endotoxin-induced inflammation and augments neurogenesis after cranial irradiation.

Stanford University, Department of Neurosurgery, MSLS P309, Mail Code 5487, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305–5487, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: tpalmer{at}stanford.edu


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Neuronal Activity Promotes Oligodendrogenesis and Adaptive Myelination in the Mammalian Brain.
E. M. Gibson, D. Purger, C. W. Mount, A. K. Goldstein, G. L. Lin, L. S. Wood, I. Inema, S. E. Miller, G. Bieri, J. B. Zuchero, et al. (2014)
Science
   Abstract »
Consequences of cancer treatments on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: implications for cognitive function and depressive symptoms.
G. Pereira Dias, R. Hollywood, M. C. d. N. Bevilaqua, A. C. D. da Silveira da Luz, R. Hindges, A. E. Nardi, and S. Thuret (2014)
Neuro Oncology 16, 476-492
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Blockade of Kv1.3 channels ameliorates radiation-induced brain injury.
Y. Peng, K. Lu, Z. Li, Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, B. Hu, P. Xu, X. Shi, B. Zhou, M. Pennington, et al. (2014)
Neuro Oncology 16, 528-539
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Trans-Signaling Is a Dominant Mechanism for the Pathogenic Actions of Interleukin-6 in the Brain.
I. L. Campbell, M. Erta, S. L. Lim, R. Frausto, U. May, S. Rose-John, J. Scheller, and J. Hidalgo (2014)
J. Neurosci. 34, 2503-2513
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microglia Enhance Neurogenesis and Oligodendrogenesis in the Early Postnatal Subventricular Zone.
Y. Shigemoto-Mogami, K. Hoshikawa, J. E. Goldman, Y. Sekino, and K. Sato (2014)
J. Neurosci. 34, 2231-2243
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protective Autoimmunity: A Unifying Model for the Immune Network Involved in CNS Repair.
M. Schwartz and C. Raposo (2014)
Neuroscientist
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TAM Receptors Affect Adult Brain Neurogenesis by Negative Regulation of Microglial Cell Activation.
R. Ji, S. Tian, H. J. Lu, Q. Lu, Y. Zheng, X. Wang, J. Ding, Q. Li, and Q. Lu (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 6165-6177
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Safety of Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.
K. M. Piltti, D. L. Salazar, N. Uchida, B. J. Cummings, and A. J. Anderson (2013)
Stem Cells Trans Med 2, 961-974
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neurocognitive assessment following whole brain radiation therapy and radiosurgery for patients with cerebral metastases.
S. G. R. McDuff, Z. J. Taich, J. D. Lawson, P. Sanghvi, E. T. Wong, F. G. Barker II, F. H. Hochberg, J. S. Loeffler, P. C. Warnke, K. T. Murphy, et al. (2013)
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 84, 1384-1391
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immune dysregulation and autoimmunity in bipolar disorder: Synthesis of the evidence and its clinical application.
S. Rege and S. J. Hodgkinson (2013)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 47, 1136-1151
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deficits in Adult Neurogenesis, Contextual Fear Conditioning, and Spatial Learning in a Gfap Mutant Mouse Model of Alexander Disease.
T. L. Hagemann, R. Paylor, and A. Messing (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 18698-18706
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
How Do Immune Cells Support and Shape the Brain in Health, Disease, and Aging?.
M. Schwartz, J. Kipnis, S. Rivest, and A. Prat (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 17587-17596
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Processing Speed, Attention, and Working Memory After Treatment for Medulloblastoma: An International, Prospective, and Longitudinal Study.
S. L. Palmer, C. Armstrong, A. Onar-Thomas, S. Wu, D. Wallace, M. J. Bonner, J. Schreiber, M. Swain, L. Chapieski, D. Mabbott, et al. (2013)
J. Clin. Oncol. 31, 3494-3500
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interleukin-10 regulates progenitor differentiation and modulates neurogenesis in adult brain.
F. J. Perez-Asensio, U. Perpina, A. M. Planas, and E. Pozas (2013)
J. Cell Sci. 126, 4208-4219
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflammatory Pathways Link Socioeconomic Inequalities to White Matter Architecture.
P. J. Gianaros, A. L. Marsland, L. K. Sheu, K. I. Erickson, and T. D. Verstynen (2013)
Cereb Cortex 23, 2058-2071
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activated microglia enhance neurogenesis via trypsinogen secretion.
A. M. Nikolakopoulou, R. Dutta, Z. Chen, R. H. Miller, and B. D. Trapp (2013)
PNAS 110, 8714-8719
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Pathways: Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment.
D. Greene-Schloesser, E. Moore, and M. E. Robbins (2013)
Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 2294-2300
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vascular-derived TGF-{beta} increases in the stem cell niche and perturbs neurogenesis during aging and following irradiation in the adult mouse brain.
J. R. Pineda, M. Daynac, A. Chicheportiche, A. Cebrian-Silla, K. Sii Felice, J. M. Garcia-Verdugo, F. D. Boussin, and M.-A. Mouthon (2013)
EMBO Mol Med. 5, 548-562
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dual effects of increased glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} activity on adult neurogenesis.
A. Fuster-Matanzo, M. Llorens-Martin, M. S. Sirerol-Piquer, J. M. Garcia-Verdugo, J. Avila, and F. Hernandez (2013)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 22, 1300-1315
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microglia Regulate the Number of Neural Precursor Cells in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.
C. L. Cunningham, V. Martinez-Cerdeno, and S. C. Noctor (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 4216-4233
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Association between radiation dose to neuronal progenitor cell niches and temporal lobes and performance on neuropsychological testing in children: a prospective study.
K. J. Redmond, E. M. Mahone, S. Terezakis, O. Ishaq, E. Ford, T. McNutt, L. Kleinberg, K. J. Cohen, M. Wharam, and A. Horska (2013)
Neuro Oncology 15, 360-369
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CCR2 Deficiency Prevents Neuronal Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairments Induced by Cranial Irradiation.
K. Belarbi, T. Jopson, C. Arellano, J. R. Fike, and S. Rosi (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 1201-1210
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Aging-Induced Nrf2-ARE Pathway Disruption in the Subventricular Zone Drives Neurogenic Impairment in Parkinsonian Mice via PI3K-Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Dysregulation.
F. L'Episcopo, C. Tirolo, N. Testa, S. Caniglia, M. C. Morale, F. Impagnatiello, S. Pluchino, and B. Marchetti (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 1462-1485
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Acute Inflammation Initiates the Regenerative Response in the Adult Zebrafish Brain.
N. Kyritsis, C. Kizil, S. Zocher, V. Kroehne, J. Kaslin, D. Freudenreich, A. Iltzsche, and M. Brand (2012)
Science 338, 1353-1356
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Does ionizing radiation influence Alzheimer's disease risk?.
N. Begum, B. Wang, M. Mori, and G. Vares (2012)
J Radiat Res 53, 815-822
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation-induced brain injury using targeted microparticles of iron oxide.
Y. Zhu, Y. Ling, J. Zhong, X. Liu, K. Wei, and S. Huang (2012)
Acta Radiologica 53, 812-819
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Radiation-induced cognitive impairment-from bench to bedside.
D. Greene-Schloesser and M. E. Robbins (2012)
Neuro Oncology 14, iv37-iv44
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Protease Omi Cleaves the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase MEK1 to Inhibit Microglial Activation.
Q. Hu, B. Li, R. Xu, D. Chen, C. Mu, E. Fei, and G. Wang (2012)
Science Signaling 5, ra61
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fluoxetine restores spatial learning but not accelerated forgetting in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
L. Barkas, E. Redhead, M. Taylor, A. Shtaya, D. A. Hamilton, and W. P. Gray (2012)
Brain 135, 2358-2374
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microglia Modulate Hippocampal Neural Precursor Activity in Response to Exercise and Aging.
J. Vukovic, M. J. Colditz, D. G. Blackmore, M. J. Ruitenberg, and P. F. Bartlett (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 6435-6443
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genomic Analysis of Reactive Astrogliosis.
J. L. Zamanian, L. Xu, L. C. Foo, N. Nouri, L. Zhou, R. G. Giffard, and B. A. Barres (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 6391-6410
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Depression: an inflammatory illness?.
R. Krishnadas and J. Cavanagh (2012)
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 83, 495-502
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Early Activation of Microglia Triggers Long-Lasting Impairment of Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb.
F. Lazarini, M.-M. Gabellec, N. Torquet, and P.-M. Lledo (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 3652-3664
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neurofibromin Modulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants.
Y. Li, Y. Li, R. M. McKay, D. Riethmacher, and L. F. Parada (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 3529-3539
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plasticity of Subventricular Zone Neuroprogenitors in MPTP (1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine) Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease Involves Cross Talk between Inflammatory and Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Signaling Pathways: Functional Consequences for Neuroprotection and Repair.
F. L'Episcopo, C. Tirolo, N. Testa, S. Caniglia, M. C. Morale, M. Deleidi, M. F. Serapide, S. Pluchino, and B. Marchetti (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 2062-2085
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Postnatal Neurogenesis: Of Mice, Men, and Macaques.
R. M. Walton (2012)
Veterinary Pathology 49, 155-165
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain from neurogenic radial glia-type progenitors.
V. Kroehne, D. Freudenreich, S. Hans, J. Kaslin, and M. Brand (2011)
Development 138, 4831-4841
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Role of Microglia in the Healthy Brain.
M.-E. Tremblay, B. Stevens, A. Sierra, H. Wake, A. Bessis, and A. Nimmerjahn (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 16064-16069
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Brain Regeneration in Physiology and Pathology: The Immune Signature Driving Therapeutic Plasticity of Neural Stem Cells.
G. Martino, S. Pluchino, L. Bonfanti, and M. Schwartz (2011)
Physiol Rev 91, 1281-1304
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microglial Cells Contribute to Endogenous Brain Defenses after Acute Neonatal Focal Stroke.
J. V. Faustino, X. Wang, C. E. Johnson, A. Klibanov, N. Derugin, M. F. Wendland, and Z. S. Vexler (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 12992-13001
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction.
M. M. Acharya, L.-A. Christie, M. L. Lan, E. Giedzinski, J. R. Fike, S. Rosi, and C. L. Limoli (2011)
Cancer Res. 71, 4834-4845
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interleukin-15 regulates proliferation and self-renewal of adult neural stem cells.
D. Gomez-Nicola, B. Valle-Argos, N. Pallas-Bazarra, and M. Nieto-Sampedro (2011)
Mol. Biol. Cell 22, 1960-1970
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effects of Neural Progenitor Cells on Sensorimotor Recovery and Endogenous Repair Mechanisms After Photothrombotic Stroke.
J. Minnerup, J. B. Kim, A. Schmidt, K. Diederich, H. Bauer, M. Schilling, J.-K. Strecker, E. B. Ringelstein, C. Sommer, H. R. Scholer, et al. (2011)
Stroke 42, 1757-1763
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cognitive dysfunction with aging and the role of inflammation.
A. A. Simen, K. A. Bordner, M. P. Martin, L. A. Moy, and L. C. Barry (2011)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease 2, 175-195
   Abstract »    PDF »
Maternal Periodontitis Treatment and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 to 28 Months of Age.
B. S. Michalowicz, J. S. Hodges, R. C. Lussky, H. Bada, T. Rawson, L. S. Buttross, C. Chiriboga, A. J. DiAngelis, M. J. Novak, W. Buchanan, et al. (2011)
Pediatrics 127, e1212-e1220
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Is brain the new bone marrow?: Stem cells, cancer, and cognition: A working hypothesis.
N. A. Mohile, C. M. Zoccoli, and M. Glantz (2011)
Neurology 76, 1118-1120
   Full Text »    PDF »
Complement Receptor 2 Is Expressed in Neural Progenitor Cells and Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.
M. Moriyama, T. Fukuhara, M. Britschgi, Y. He, R. Narasimhan, S. Villeda, H. Molina, B. T. Huber, M. Holers, and T. Wyss-Coray (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 3981-3989
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cellular Environment Directs Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells In Vitro.
I. Markiewicz, J. Sypecka, K. Domanska-Janik, T. Wyszomirski, and B. Lukomska (2011)
Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 59, 289-301
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of CCR5 and its ligands in the control of vascular inflammation and leukocyte recruitment required for acute excitotoxic seizure induction and neural damage.
J.-P. Louboutin, A. Chekmasova, E. Marusich, L. Agrawal, and D. S. Strayer (2011)
FASEB J 25, 737-753
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuroprotection and progenitor cell renewal in the injured adult murine retina requires healing monocyte-derived macrophages.
A. London, E. Itskovich, I. Benhar, V. Kalchenko, M. Mack, S. Jung, and M. Schwartz (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 23-39
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} triggers a cytokine cascade yielding postoperative cognitive decline.
N. Terrando, C. Monaco, D. Ma, B. M. J. Foxwell, M. Feldmann, and M. Maze (2010)
PNAS 107, 20518-20522
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Voluntary Running Prevents Progressive Memory Decline and Increases Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Growth Factor Expression after Whole-Brain Irradiation.
S. J. E. Wong-Goodrich, M. L. Pfau, C. T. Flores, J. A. Fraser, C. L. Williams, and L. W. Jones (2010)
Cancer Res. 70, 9329-9338
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial Protection Attenuates Inflammation-Induced Impairment of Neurogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo.
L. A. Voloboueva, S. W. Lee, J. F. Emery, T. D. Palmer, and R. G. Giffard (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 12242-12251
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Relationship Between Inflammatory Markers and Post Stroke Cognitive Impairment.
L. S. Rothenburg, N. Herrmann, W. Swardfager, S. E. Black, G. Tennen, A. Kiss, D. J. Gladstone, J. Ween, A. Snaiderman, and K. L. Lanctot (2010)
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 23, 199-205
   Abstract »    PDF »
Endogenous Interferon {gamma} Directly Regulates Neural Precursors in the Non-Inflammatory Brain.
L. Li, T. L. Walker, Y. Zhang, E. W. Mackay, and P. F. Bartlett (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 9038-9050
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of learning and memory by meningeal immunity: a key role for IL-4.
N. C. Derecki, A. N. Cardani, C. H. Yang, K. M. Quinnies, A. Crihfield, K. R. Lynch, and J. Kipnis (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 1067-1080
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rescue of radiation-induced cognitive impairment through cranial transplantation of human embryonic stem cells.
M. M. Acharya, L.-A. Christie, M. L. Lan, P. J. Donovan, C. W. Cotman, J. R. Fike, and C. L. Limoli (2009)
PNAS 106, 19150-19155
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Increased neuronal proliferation in human bacterial meningitis.
J. Gerber, S. C. Tauber, I. Armbrecht, H. Schmidt, W. Bruck, and R. Nau (2009)
Neurology 73, 1026-1032
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Adaptive peripheral immune response increases proliferation of neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus.
S. A. Wolf, B. Steiner, A. Wengner, M. Lipp, T. Kammertoens, and G. Kempermann (2009)
FASEB J 23, 3121-3128
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CD4-Positive T Lymphocytes Provide a Neuroimmunological Link in the Control of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.
S. A. Wolf, B. Steiner, A. Akpinarli, T. Kammertoens, C. Nassenstein, A. Braun, T. Blankenstein, and G. Kempermann (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 3979-3984
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration and Regeneration in Alcoholism.
F. T. Crews and K. Nixon (2009)
Alcohol Alcohol. 44, 115-127
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dentate gyrus-specific knockdown of adult neurogenesis impairs spatial and object recognition memory in adult rats.
S. Jessberger, R. E. Clark, N. J. Broadbent, G. D. Clemenson Jr, A. Consiglio, D. C. Lie, L. R. Squire, and F. H. Gage (2009)
Learn. Mem. 16, 147-154
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1{alpha} Protects Cultured Cortical Neurons from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cell Death via Regulation of NR1 Expression.
S.-H. Yeh, J.-J. Hung, P.-W. Gean, and W.-C. Chang (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 14259-14270
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Clinical Patterns and Biological Correlates of Cognitive Dysfunction Associated with Cancer Therapy.
J. Dietrich, M. Monje, J. Wefel, and C. Meyers (2008)
Oncologist 13, 1285-1295
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflammation Regulates Functional Integration of Neurons Born in Adult Brain.
K. Jakubs, S. Bonde, R. E. Iosif, C. T. Ekdahl, Z. Kokaia, M. Kokaia, and O. Lindvall (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 12477-12488
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human NK Cells Kill Resting but Not Activated Microglia via NKG2D- and NKp46-Mediated Recognition.
A. Lunemann, J. D. Lunemann, S. Roberts, B. Messmer, R. B. da Silva, C. S. Raine, and C. Munz (2008)
J. Immunol. 181, 6170-6177
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Postnatal and Adult Neurogenesis in the Development of Human Disease.
S. C. Danzer (2008)
Neuroscientist 14, 446-458
   Abstract »    PDF »
Persistent inflammation alters the function of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment.
S. Pluchino, L. Muzio, J. Imitola, M. Deleidi, C. Alfaro-Cervello, G. Salani, C. Porcheri, E. Brambilla, F. Cavasinni, A. Bergamaschi, et al. (2008)
Brain 131, 2564-2578
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cognitive Role of Neurogenesis in Depression and Antidepressant Treatment.
T. D. Perera, S. Park, and Y. Nemirovskaya (2008)
Neuroscientist 14, 326-338
   Abstract »    PDF »
IFN-{gamma} enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
R. Baron, A. Nemirovsky, I. Harpaz, H. Cohen, T. Owens, and A. Monsonego (2008)
FASEB J 22, 2843-2852
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflammation and its relevance to psychiatry.
J. Cavanagh and C. Mathias (2008)
Adv. Psychiatr. Treat. 14, 248-255
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cellular repair of CNS disorders: an immunological perspective.
Z. Chen and T. D. Palmer (2008)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 17, R84-R92
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuroendocrine-Immune Mechanisms of Behavioral Comorbidities in Patients With Cancer.
A. H. Miller, S. Ancoli-Israel, J. E. Bower, L. Capuron, and M. R. Irwin (2008)
J. Clin. Oncol. 26, 971-982
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
p21Cip1 restricts neuronal proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
R. N. Pechnick, S. Zonis, K. Wawrowsky, J. Pourmorady, and V. Chesnokova (2008)
PNAS 105, 1358-1363
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-1 is an essential mediator of the antineurogenic and anhedonic effects of stress.
J. W. Koo and R. S. Duman (2008)
PNAS 105, 751-756
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neurodegeneration and cell replacement.
B. K Ormerod, T. D Palmer, and M. A Caldwell (2008)
Phil Trans R Soc B 363, 153-170
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuropsychological Outcomes From a Randomized Trial of Triple Intrathecal Chemotherapy Compared With 18 Gy Cranial Radiation As CNS Treatment in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Findings From Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 95-01.
D. P. Waber, J. Turek, L. Catania, K. Stevenson, P. Robaey, I. Romero, H. Adams, C. Alyman, C. Jandet-Brunet, D. S. Neuberg, et al. (2007)
J. Clin. Oncol. 25, 4914-4921
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Copolymer-1 Induces Adaptive Immune Anti-inflammatory Glial and Neuroprotective Responses in a Murine Model of HIV-1 Encephalitis.
S. Gorantla, J. Liu, H. Sneller, H. Dou, A. Holguin, L. Smith, T. Ikezu, D. J. Volsky, L. Poluektova, and H. E. Gendelman (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 4345-4356
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effects of Skilled Forelimb Training on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Learning After Focal Cortical Infarcts in the Adult Rat Brain.
F. Wurm, S. Keiner, A. Kunze, O. W. Witte, and C. Redecker (2007)
Stroke 38, 2833-2840
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oxidative damage pathways in relation to normal tissue injury.
W Zhao, D I Diz, and M E Robbins (2007)
Br. J. Radiol. 80, S23-S31
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The emergence of proteinase-activated receptor-2 as a novel target for the treatment of inflammation-related CNS disorders.
T. Bushell (2007)
J. Physiol. 581, 7-16
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882