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Science 302 (5653): 2126-2130

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Dual Activation of the Drosophila Toll Pathway by Two Pattern Recognition Receptors

Vanessa Gobert,1 Marie Gottar,1 Alexey A. Matskevich,1 Sophie Rutschmann,1* Julien Royet,1 Marcia Belvin,2 Jules A. Hoffmann,1 Dominique Ferrandon1{dagger}

Abstract: The Toll-dependent defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA). A mutation termed osiris disrupts the Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) gene and leads to compromised survival of mutant flies after Gram-positive infections, but not after fungal or Gram-negative bacterial challenge. Our results demonstrate that GNBP1 and PGRP-SA can jointly activate the Toll pathway. The potential for a combination of distinct proteins to mediate detection of infectious nonself in the fly will refine the concept of pattern recognition in insects.

1 Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue René Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France.
2 Exelixis Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94083, USA.

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* Present address: Department of Immunology, IMM-30, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: D.Ferrandon{at}

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