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Science 303 (5662): 1361-1364

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

A Putative Ca2+ and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Required for Bacterial and Fungal Symbioses

Julien Lévy,1* Cécile Bres,1* René Geurts,2 Boulos Chalhoub,3 Olga Kulikova,2 Gérard Duc,4 Etienne-Pascal Journet,1 Jean-Michel Ané,1 Emmanuelle Lauber,1 Ton Bisseling,2 Jean Dénarié,1 Charles Rosenberg,1 Frédéric Debellé1{dagger}

Abstract: Legumes can enter into symbiotic relationships with both nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) and mycorrhizal fungi. Nodulation by rhizobia results from a signal transduction pathway induced in legume roots by rhizobial Nod factors. DMI3, a Medicago truncatula gene that acts immediately downstream of calcium spiking in this signaling pathway and is required for both nodulation and mycorrhizal infection, has high sequence similarity to genes encoding calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs). This indicates that calcium spiking is likely an essential component of the signaling cascade leading to nodule development and mycorrhizal infection, and sheds light on the biological role of plant CCaMKs.

1 Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes–Microorganismes INRA-CNRS, BP27, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France.
2 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University, Dreijenlaan 3, 6703HA Wageningen, Netherlands.
3 Unité de Recherches en Génomique Végétale INRA, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, CP 5708, F-91057 Evry Cedex, France.
4 Unité de Recherche de Génétique et Ecophysiologie des Légumineuses INRA, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France.

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* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: debelle{at}toulouse.inra.fr


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Pseudomonas fluorescens and Glomus mosseae Trigger DMI3-Dependent Activation of Genes Related to a Signal Transduction Pathway in Roots of Medicago truncatula.
L. Sanchez, S. Weidmann, C. Arnould, A. R. Bernard, S. Gianinazzi, and V. Gianinazzi-Pearson (2005)
Plant Physiology 139, 1065-1077
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Seven Lotus japonicus Genes Required for Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Root during Fungal and Bacterial Symbiosis.
C. Kistner, T. Winzer, A. Pitzschke, L. Mulder, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, S. Tabata, N. Sandal, J. Stougaard, K. J. Webb, et al. (2005)
PLANT CELL 17, 2217-2229
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SrSymRK, a plant receptor essential for symbiosome formation.
W. Capoen, S. Goormachtig, R. De Rycke, K. Schroeyers, and M. Holsters (2005)
PNAS 102, 10369-10374
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Formation of organelle-like N2-fixing symbiosomes in legume root nodules is controlled by DMI2.
E. Limpens, R. Mirabella, E. Fedorova, C. Franken, H. Franssen, T. Bisseling, and R. Geurts (2005)
PNAS 102, 10375-10380
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Biological costs and benefits to plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere.
J. A. W. Morgan, G. D. Bending, and P. J. White (2005)
J. Exp. Bot. 56, 1729-1739
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Nodulation Signaling in Legumes Requires NSP2, a Member of the GRAS Family of Transcriptional Regulators.
P. Kalo, C. Gleason, A. Edwards, J. Marsh, R. M. Mitra, S. Hirsch, J. Jakab, S. Sims, S. R. Long, J. Rogers, et al. (2005)
Science 308, 1786-1789
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NSP1 of the GRAS Protein Family Is Essential for Rhizobial Nod Factor-Induced Transcription.
P. Smit, J. Raedts, V. Portyanko, F. Debelle, C. Gough, T. Bisseling, and R. Geurts (2005)
Science 308, 1789-1791
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Comparative transcriptomics of rice reveals an ancient pattern of response to microbial colonization.
S. Guimil, H.-S. Chang, T. Zhu, A. Sesma, A. Osbourn, C. Roux, V. Ioannidis, E. J. Oakeley, M. Docquier, P. Descombes, et al. (2005)
PNAS 102, 8066-8070
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The Sulfate Transporter SST1 Is Crucial for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Lotus japonicus Root Nodules.
L. Krusell, K. Krause, T. Ott, G. Desbrosses, U. Kramer, S. Sato, Y. Nakamura, S. Tabata, E. K. James, N. Sandal, et al. (2005)
PLANT CELL 17, 1625-1636
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Sequencing the Genespaces of Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus.
N. D. Young, S. B. Cannon, S. Sato, D. Kim, D. R. Cook, C. D. Town, B. A. Roe, and S. Tabata (2005)
Plant Physiology 137, 1174-1181
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Bridging Model and Crop Legumes through Comparative Genomics.
H. Zhu, H.-K. Choi, D. R. Cook, and R. C. Shoemaker (2005)
Plant Physiology 137, 1189-1196
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Peace Talks and Trade Deals. Keys to Long-Term Harmony in Legume-Microbe Symbioses.
G. E.D. Oldroyd, M. J. Harrison, and M. Udvardi (2005)
Plant Physiology 137, 1205-1210
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Characterization of the Lotus japonicus Symbiotic Mutant lot1 That Shows a Reduced Nodule Number and Distorted Trichomes.
Y. Ooki, M. Banba, K. Yano, J. Maruya, S. Sato, S. Tabata, K. Saeki, M. Hayashi, M. Kawaguchi, K. Izui, et al. (2005)
Plant Physiology 137, 1261-1271
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Root-knot nematodes and bacterial Nod factors elicit common signal transduction events in Lotus japonicus.
R. R. Weerasinghe, D. McK. Bird, and N. S. Allen (2005)
PNAS 102, 3147-3152
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Genome-wide Identification of the Rice Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and its Closely Related Kinase Gene Families: Comprehensive Analysis of the CDPKs Gene Family in Rice.
T. Asano, N. Tanaka, G. Yang, N. Hayashi, and S. Komatsu (2005)
Plant Cell Physiol. 46, 356-366
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Pharmacological Evidence That Multiple Phospholipid Signaling Pathways Link Rhizobium Nodulation Factor Perception in Medicago truncatula Root Hairs to Intracellular Responses, Including Ca2+ Spiking and Specific ENOD Gene Expression.
D. Charron, J.-L. Pingret, M. Chabaud, E.-P. Journet, and D. G. Barker (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3582-3593
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LIN, a Medicago truncatula Gene Required for Nodule Differentiation and Persistence of Rhizobial Infections.
K. T. Kuppusamy, G. Endre, R. Prabhu, R. V. Penmetsa, H. Veereshlingam, D. R. Cook, R. Dickstein, and K. A. VandenBosch (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3682-3691
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Calcium/Calmodulin Up-regulates a Cytoplasmic Receptor-like Kinase in Plants.
T. Yang, S. Chaudhuri, L. Yang, Y. Chen, and B. W. Poovaiah (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42552-42559
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Six nonnodulating plant mutants defective for Nod factor-induced transcriptional changes associated with the legume-rhizobia symbiosis.
R. M. Mitra, S. L. Shaw, and S. R. Long (2004)
PNAS 101, 10217-10222
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Positioning Arabidopsis in Plant Biology. A Key Step Toward Unification of Plant Research.
M. Bevan and S. Walsh (2004)
Plant Physiology 135, 602-606
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Unraveling the mystery of Nod factor signaling by a genomic approach in Medicago trunactula.
D. R. Cook (2004)
PNAS 101, 4339-4340
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Medicago truncatula DMI1 Required for Bacterial and Fungal Symbioses in Legumes.
J.-M. Ane, G. B. Kiss, B. K. Riely, R. V. Penmetsa, G. E. D. Oldroyd, C. Ayax, J. Levy, F. Debelle, J.-M. Baek, P. Kalo, et al. (2004)
Science 303, 1364-1367
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