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Science 303 (5663): 1522-1526

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

A Toll-like Receptor That Prevents Infection by Uropathogenic Bacteria

Dekai Zhang, Guolong Zhang,* Matthew S. Hayden, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Crystal Bussey, Richard A. Flavell, Sankar Ghosh{dagger}

Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize molecular patterns displayed by microorganisms, and their subsequent activation leads to the transcription of appropriate host-defense genes. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a member of the mammalian TLR family, TLR11, that displays a distinct pattern of expression in macrophages and liver, kidney, and bladder epithelial cells. Cells expressing TLR11 fail to respond to known TLR ligands but instead respond specifically to uropathogenic bacteria. Mice lacking TLR11 are highly susceptible to infection of the kidneys by uropathogenic bacteria, indicating a potentially important role for TLR11 in preventing infection of internal organs of the urogenital system.

Section of Immunobiology and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

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* Present address: Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed: sankar.ghosh{at}

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Sepsis induces changes in the expression and distribution of Toll-like receptor 4 in the rat kidney.
T. M. El-Achkar, X. Huang, Z. Plotkin, R. M. Sandoval, G. J. Rhodes, and P. C. Dagher (2006)
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290, F1034-F1043
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification and Characterization of Murine SCARA5, a Novel Class A Scavenger Receptor That Is Expressed by Populations of Epithelial Cells.
Y. Jiang, P. Oliver, K. E. Davies, and N. Platt (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 11834-11845
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Postnatal acquisition of endotoxin tolerance in intestinal epithelial cells.
M. Lotz, D. Gutle, S. Walther, S. Menard, C. Bogdan, and M. W. Hornef (2006)
J. Exp. Med. 203, 973-984
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Invited review: MDP and other muropeptides direct and synergistic effects on the immune system.
S. Traub, S. von Aulock, T. Hartung, and C. Hermann (2006)
Innate Immunity 12, 69-85
   Abstract »    PDF »
Leptospiral membrane proteins stimulate pro-inflammatory chemokines secretion by renal tubule epithelial cells through toll-like receptor 2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase.
C.-C. Hung, C.-T. Chang, Y.-C. Tian, M.-S. Wu, C.-C. Yu, M.-J. Pan, A. Vandewalle, and C.-W. Yang (2006)
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 21, 898-910
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modulation of Neonatal Microbial Recognition: TLR-Mediated Innate Immune Responses Are Specifically and Differentially Modulated by Human Milk.
E. LeBouder, J. E. Rey-Nores, A.-C. Raby, M. Affolter, K. Vidal, C. A. Thornton, and M. O. Labeta (2006)
J. Immunol. 176, 3742-3752
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microglia Recognize Double-Stranded RNA via TLR3.
T. Town, D. Jeng, L. Alexopoulou, J. Tan, and R. A. Flavell (2006)
J. Immunol. 176, 3804-3812
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Induction of a Novel Chicken Toll-Like Receptor following Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection.
R. Higgs, P. Cormican, S. Cahalane, B. Allan, A. T. Lloyd, K. Meade, T. James, D. J. Lynn, L. A. Babiuk, and C. O'Farrelly (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 1692-1698
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protective and Destructive Immunity in the Periodontium: Part 1--Innate and Humoral Immunity and the Periodontium.
Y.-T.A. Teng (2006)
Journal of Dental Research 85, 198-208
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protective and Destructive Immunity in the Periodontium: Part 2--T-cell-mediated Immunity in the Periodontium.
Y.-T.A. Teng (2006)
Journal of Dental Research 85, 209-219
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Toll-like receptor 4 defective mice carrying point or null mutations do not show increased susceptibility to Candida albicans in a model of hematogenously disseminated infection.
C. Murciano, E. Villamon, D. Gozalbo, P. Roig, J. E. O'Connor, and M. L. Gil (2006)
Med Mycol 44, 149-157
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Flagellin Is an Effective Adjuvant for Immunization against Lethal Respiratory Challenge with Yersinia pestis.
A. N. Honko, N. Sriranganathan, C. J. Lees, and S. B. Mizel (2006)
Infect. Immun. 74, 1113-1120
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endotoxin-Induced Expression of Murine Bactericidal Permeability/Increasing Protein Is Mediated Exclusively by Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor Inducing IFN-{beta}-Dependent Pathways.
M. Eckert, I. Wittmann, M. Rollinghoff, A. Gessner, and M. Schnare (2006)
J. Immunol. 176, 522-528
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The CATERPILLER Protein Monarch-1 Is an Antagonist of Toll-like Receptor-, Tumor Necrosis Factor {alpha}-, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced Pro-inflammatory Signals.
K. L. Williams, J. D. Lich, J. A. Duncan, W. Reed, P. Rallabhandi, C. Moore, S. Kurtz, V. M. Coffield, M. A. Accavitti-Loper, L. Su, et al. (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 39914-39924
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
How Toll-like receptors and Nod-like receptors contribute to innate immunity in mammals.
J. H. Fritz and S. E. Girardin (2005)
Innate Immunity 11, 390-394
   Abstract »    PDF »

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