Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 304 (5667): 110-115

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Rapid Rewiring of Arcuate Nucleus Feeding Circuits by Leptin

Shirly Pinto,1* Aaron G. Roseberry,1* Hongyan Liu,1* Sabrina Diano,3 Marya Shanabrough,3 Xiaoli Cai,1,2 Jeffrey M. Friedman,1,2{dagger} Tamas L. Horvath3,4{dagger}

Abstract: The fat-derived hormone leptin regulates energy balance in part by modulating the activity of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. To study the intrinsic activity of these neurons and their responses to leptin, we generated mice that express distinct green fluorescent proteins in these two neuronal types. Leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice differed from wild-type mice in the numbers of excitatory and inhibitory synapses and postsynaptic currents onto neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons. When leptin was delivered systemically to ob/ob mice, the synaptic density rapidly normalized, an effect detectable within 6 hours, several hours before leptin's effect on food intake. These data suggest that leptin-mediated plasticity in the ob/ob hypothalamus may underlie some of the hormone's behavioral effects.

1 Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.
2 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.
3 Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
4 Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Back to Top

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: friedj{at}mail.rockefeller.edu (J.M.F.); tamas.horvath{at}yale.edu (T.L.H.)


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Leptin Modulates the Intrinsic Excitability of AgRP/NPY Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.
S. B. Baver, K. Hope, S. Guyot, C. Bjorbaek, C. Kaczorowski, and K. M. S. O'Connell (2014)
J. Neurosci. 34, 5486-5496
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice.
A. J. Mercer, R. C. Stuart, C. A. Attard, V. Otero-Corchon, E. A. Nillni, and M. J. Low (2014)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 306, E904-E915
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of Synaptic Plasticity and EphA5-EphrinA5 Interaction Within the Ventromedial Hypothalamus in Response to Recurrent Hypoglycemia.
B. Szepietowska, T. L. Horvath, and R. S. Sherwin (2014)
Diabetes 63, 1140-1147
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuits controlling homeostatic energy balance.
M. Schneeberger, R. Gomis, and M. Claret (2014)
J. Endocrinol. 220, T25-T46
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic Dysfunction of the Thrombospondin Receptor {alpha}2{delta}-1 Underlies the Overeating and Obesity Triggered by Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Deficiency.
J. W. Cordeira, J. A. Felsted, S. Teillon, S. Daftary, M. Panessiti, J. Wirth, M. Sena-Esteves, and M. Rios (2014)
J. Neurosci. 34, 554-565
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Orexin-A Activates Hypothalamic AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling through a Ca2+-Dependent Mechanism Involving Voltage-Gated L-Type Calcium Channel.
W.-N. Wu, P.-F. Wu, J. Zhou, X.-L. Guan, Z. Zhang, Y.-J. Yang, L.-H. Long, N. Xie, J.-G. Chen, and F. Wang (2013)
Mol. Pharmacol. 84, 876-887
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GABA Type B Receptor Signaling in Proopiomelanocortin Neurons Protects Against Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Hypothalamic Inflammation in Male Mice on a High-Fat Diet.
Y. Ito, R. Banno, M. Shibata, K. Adachi, S. Hagimoto, D. Hagiwara, Y. Ozawa, M. Goto, H. Suga, Y. Sugimura, et al. (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 17166-17173
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deficiency of p62/Sequestosome 1 Causes Hyperphagia Due to Leptin Resistance in the Brain.
H. Harada, E. Warabi, T. Matsuki, T. Yanagawa, K. Okada, J. Uwayama, A. Ikeda, K. Nakaso, K. Kirii, N. Noguchi, et al. (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 14767-14777
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Early Postnatal Nutrition Determines Adult Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure in Female Mice.
G. Li, J. J. Kohorst, W. Zhang, E. Laritsky, G. Kunde-Ramamoorthy, M. S. Baker, M. L. Fiorotto, and R. A. Waterland (2013)
Diabetes 62, 2773-2783
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Orexin neurons use endocannabinoids to break obesity-induced inhibition.
A. Alpar and T. Harkany (2013)
PNAS 110, 9625-9626
   Full Text »    PDF »
Obesity-driven synaptic remodeling affects endocannabinoid control of orexinergic neurons.
L. Cristino, G. Busetto, R. Imperatore, I. Ferrandino, L. Palomba, C. Silvestri, S. Petrosino, P. Orlando, M. Bentivoglio, K. Mackie, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, E2229-E2238
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Acute and Long-Term Suppression of Feeding Behavior by POMC Neurons in the Brainstem and Hypothalamus, Respectively.
C. Zhan, J. Zhou, Q. Feng, J.-e. Zhang, S. Lin, J. Bao, P. Wu, and M. Luo (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 3624-3632
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Abdominal fat distribution and its relationship to brain changes: the differential effects of age on cerebellar structure and function: a cross-sectional, exploratory study.
M. Raschpichler, K. Straatman, M. L. Schroeter, K. Arelin, H. Schlogl, D. Fritzsch, M. Mende, A. Pampel, Y. Bottcher, M. Stumvoll, et al. (2013)
BMJ Open 3, e001915
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neonatal Leptin Exposure Specifies Innervation of Presympathetic Hypothalamic Neurons and Improves the Metabolic Status of Leptin-Deficient Mice.
K. Bouyer and R. B. Simerly (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 840-851
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Metabolism and the Circadian Clock Converge.
K. Eckel-Mahan and P. Sassone-Corsi (2013)
Physiol Rev 93, 107-135
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic AgRP-neurons control peripheral substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning.
A. Joly-Amado, R. G. P. Denis, J. Castel, A. Lacombe, C. Cansell, C. Rouch, N. Kassis, J. Dairou, P. D. Cani, R. Ventura-Clapier, et al. (2012)
EMBO J. 31, 4276-4288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning.
J. G. Franco, T. P. Fernandes, C. P. D. Rocha, C. Calvino, C. C. Pazos-Moura, P. C. Lisboa, E. G. Moura, and I. H. Trevenzoli (2012)
J. Physiol. 590, 5503-5518
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Food Intake Adaptation to Dietary Fat Involves PSA-Dependent Rewiring of the Arcuate Melanocortin System in Mice.
A. Benani, C. Hryhorczuk, A. Gouaze, X. Fioramonti, X. Brenachot, C. Guissard, A. Krezymon, T. Duparc, A. Colom, E. Nedelec, et al. (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 11970-11979
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multiple Inhibitory G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Resist Acute Desensitization in the Presynaptic But Not Postsynaptic Compartments of Neurons.
R. L. Pennock, M. S. Dicken, and S. T. Hentges (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 10192-10200
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TrkB receptor signaling in the nucleus tractus solitarius mediates the food intake-suppressive effects of hindbrain BDNF and leptin.
A. M. Spaeth, S. E. Kanoski, M. R. Hayes, and H. J. Grill (2012)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302, E1252-E1260
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AgRP neurons: The foes of reproduction in leptin-deficient obese subjects.
M. O. Dietrich and T. L. Horvath (2012)
PNAS 109, 2699-2700
   Full Text »    PDF »
Control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis activity by the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, SK4.
Z. Liang, L. Chen, H. McClafferty, R. Lukowski, D. MacGregor, J. T. King, S. Rizzi, M. Sausbier, D. P. McCobb, H.-G. Knaus, et al. (2011)
J. Physiol. 589, 5965-5986
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effects of chronic weight perturbation on energy homeostasis and brain structure in mice.
Y. Ravussin, R. Gutman, S. Diano, M. Shanabrough, E. Borok, B. Sarman, A. Lehmann, C. A. LeDuc, M. Rosenbaum, T. L. Horvath, et al. (2011)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 300, R1352-R1362
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immortalized neurons for the study of hypothalamic function.
P. S. Dalvi, A. Nazarians-Armavil, S. Tung, and D. D. Belsham (2011)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 300, R1030-R1052
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin-dependent serotonin control of appetite: temporal specificity, transcriptional regulation, and therapeutic implications.
V. K. Yadav, F. Oury, K. F. Tanaka, T. Thomas, Y. Wang, S. Cremers, R. Hen, A. Krust, P. Chambon, and G. Karsenty (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 41-52
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential Expression and Sensitivity of Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Opioid Receptors Regulating Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin Neurons.
R. L. Pennock and S. T. Hentges (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 281-288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Estrogen Promotes Parvalbumin Expression in Arcuate Nucleus POMC Neurons.
P. Sotonyi, Qian Gao, I. Bechmann, and T. L. Horvath (2010)
Reproductive Sciences 17, 1077-1080
   Abstract »    PDF »
Loss of Leptin Receptors on Hypothalamic POMC Neurons Alters Synaptic Inhibition.
S. K. Chun and Y.-H. Jo (2010)
J Neurophysiol 104, 2321-2328
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Fibers Contact POMC Neurons in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus.
P. Sotonyi, G. Mezei, B. Racz, M. F. Dallman, A. Abizaid, and T. L. Horvath (2010)
Reproductive Sciences 17, 1024-1028
   Abstract »    PDF »
A sensitive period for environmental regulation of eating behavior and leptin sensitivity.
M. Mainardi, G. Scabia, T. Vottari, F. Santini, A. Pinchera, L. Maffei, T. Pizzorusso, and M. Maffei (2010)
PNAS 107, 16673-16678
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Agrp Neurons Mediate Sirt1's Action on the Melanocortin System and Energy Balance: Roles for Sirt1 in Neuronal Firing and Synaptic Plasticity.
M. O. Dietrich, C. Antunes, G. Geliang, Z.-W. Liu, E. Borok, Y. Nie, A. W. Xu, D. O. Souza, Q. Gao, S. Diano, et al. (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 11815-11825
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synaptic input organization of the melanocortin system predicts diet-induced hypothalamic reactive gliosis and obesity.
T. L. Horvath, B. Sarman, C. Garcia-Caceres, P. J. Enriori, P. Sotonyi, M. Shanabrough, E. Borok, J. Argente, J. A. Chowen, D. Perez-Tilve, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 14875-14880
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ghrelin and PYY in the regulation of energy balance and metabolism: lessons from mouse mutants.
H. Kirchner, J. Tong, M. H. Tschop, and P. T. Pfluger (2010)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298, E909-E919
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of neuronal subpopulations that project from hypothalamus to both liver and adipose tissue polysynaptically.
S. Stanley, S. Pinto, J. Segal, C. A. Perez, A. Viale, J. DeFalco, X. Cai, L. K. Heisler, and J. M. Friedman (2010)
PNAS 107, 7024-7029
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of Early Hormonal and Nutritional Experiences in Shaping Feeding Behavior and Hypothalamic Development.
S. G. Bouret (2010)
J. Nutr. 140, 653-657
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Common Origins of Hippocampal Ivy and Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressing Neurogliaform Cells.
L. Tricoire, K. A. Pelkey, M. I. Daw, V. H. Sousa, G. Miyoshi, B. Jeffries, B. Cauli, G. Fishell, and C. J. McBain (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 2165-2176
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The effect of food intake on gene expression in human peripheral blood.
A. S. Leonardson, J. Zhu, Y. Chen, K. Wang, J. R. Lamb, M. Reitman, V. Emilsson, and E. E. Schadt (2010)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 19, 159-169
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PACAP Neurons in the Hypothalamic Ventromedial Nucleus Are Targets of Central Leptin Signaling.
Z. Hawke, T. R. Ivanov, D. A. Bechtold, H. Dhillon, B. B. Lowell, and S. M. Luckman (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 14828-14835
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hormone and glucose signalling in POMC and AgRP neurons.
B. F. Belgardt, T. Okamura, and J. C. Bruning (2009)
J. Physiol. 587, 5305-5314
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Feeding signals to the hungry mind.
N. Balthasar (2009)
Exp Physiol 94, 857-866
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuromedin B and Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Excite Arcuate Nucleus Neuropeptide Y Neurons in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Expressing Strong Renilla Green Fluorescent Protein in NPY Neurons.
A. N. van den Pol, Y. Yao, L.-Y. Fu, K. Foo, H. Huang, R. Coppari, B. B. Lowell, and C. Broberger (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 4622-4639
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Signal Transduction Pathways for Leptin: An Embarrassment of Riches.
S. Chua Jr. (2009)
Diabetes 58, 513-514
   Full Text »    PDF »
Ventromedial nucleus neurons are less sensitive to leptin excitation in rats bred to develop diet-induced obesity.
B. G. Irani, C. Le Foll, A. A. Dunn-Meynell, and B. E. Levin (2009)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 296, R521-R527
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Adiponectin receptors are expressed in hypothalamus and colocalized with proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y in rodent arcuate neurons.
E Guillod-Maximin, A F Roy, C M Vacher, A Aubourg, V Bailleux, A Lorsignol, L Penicaud, M Parquet, and M Taouis (2009)
J. Endocrinol. 200, 93-105
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Novel Leptin-Regulated Genes Revealed by Transcriptional Profiling of the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus.
Y.-C. L. Tung, M. Ma, S. Piper, A. Coll, S. O'Rahilly, and G. S. H. Yeo (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 12419-12426
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Exercise-Induced Synaptogenesis in the Hippocampus Is Dependent on UCP2-Regulated Mitochondrial Adaptation.
M. O. Dietrich, Z. B. Andrews, and T. L. Horvath (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 10766-10771
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glucose regulates the effects of leptin on hypothalamic POMC neurons.
X. Ma, L. Zubcevic, and F. M. Ashcroft (2008)
PNAS 105, 9811-9816
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activity-Dependent Structural and Functional Plasticity of Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions.
D. T. Theodosis, D. A. Poulain, and S. H. R. Oliet (2008)
Physiol Rev 88, 983-1008
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cross-talk between estrogen and leptin signaling in the hypothalamus.
Q. Gao and T. L. Horvath (2008)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294, E817-E826
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of glia in the hypothalamus: implications for gonadal steroid feedback and reproductive neuroendocrine output.
L. M. Garcia-Segura, B. Lorenz, and L. L DonCarlos (2008)
Reproduction 135, 419-429
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Starvation after AgRP neuron ablation is independent of melanocortin signaling.
Q. Wu, M. P. Howell, M. A. Cowley, and R. D. Palmiter (2008)
PNAS 105, 2687-2692
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Selective Deletion of Bdnf in the Ventromedial and Dorsomedial Hypothalamus of Adult Mice Results in Hyperphagic Behavior and Obesity.
T. J. Unger, G. A. Calderon, L. C. Bradley, M. Sena-Esteves, and M. Rios (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 14265-14274
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Low expression of insulin signaling molecules impairs glucose uptake in adipocytes after early overnutrition.
A. L Rodrigues, E. P G De Souza, S. V Da Silva, D. S B Rodrigues, A. B Nascimento, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and M. S De Freitas (2007)
J. Endocrinol. 195, 485-494
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neonatal immune challenge does not affect body weight regulation in rats.
S. J. Spencer, A. Mouihate, M. A. Galic, S. L. Ellis, and Q. J. Pittman (2007)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 293, R581-R589
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of Glucosensing Neuron Subpopulations in the Arcuate Nucleus: Integration in Neuropeptide Y and Pro-Opio Melanocortin Networks?.
X. Fioramonti, S. Contie, Z. Song, V. H. Routh, A. Lorsignol, and L. Penicaud (2007)
Diabetes 56, 1219-1227
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prevention of diet-induced obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in rats following administration of leptin to their mothers.
C. J. Stocker, E. Wargent, J. O'Dowd, C. Cornick, J. R. Speakman, J. R. S. Arch, and M. A. Cawthorne (2007)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 292, R1810-R1818
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ghrelin Effects on the Circadian System of Mice.
P. C. Yannielli, P. C. Molyneux, M. E. Harrington, and D. A. Golombek (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 2890-2895
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Monoclonal antibody antagonists of hypothalamic FGFR1 cause potent but reversible hypophagia and weight loss in rodents and monkeys.
H. D. Sun, M. Malabunga, J. R. Tonra, R. DiRenzo, F. E. Carrick, H. Zheng, H.-R. Berthoud, O. P. McGuinness, J. Shen, P. Bohlen, et al. (2007)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292, E964-E976
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Electrical Inhibition of Identified Anorexigenic POMC Neurons by Orexin/Hypocretin.
X. Ma, L. Zubcevic, J. C. Bruning, F. M. Ashcroft, and D. Burdakov (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 1529-1533
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gastric ghrelin cell development is hampered and plasma ghrelin is reduced by delayed weaning in rats.
F. Fak, L. Friis-Hansen, B. Westrom, and N. Wierup (2007)
J. Endocrinol. 192, 345-352
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Appropriate Inhibition of Orexigenic Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus Neurons Independently of Leptin Receptor/STAT3 Signaling.
H. Munzberg, E. E. Jobst, S. H. Bates, J. Jones, E. Villanueva, R. Leshan, M. Bjornholm, J. Elmquist, M. Sleeman, M. A. Cowley, et al. (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 69-74
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential Target-Dependent Actions of Coexpressed Inhibitory Dynorphin and Excitatory Hypocretin/Orexin Neuropeptides.
Y. Li and A. N. van den Pol (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 13037-13047
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Thematic review series: Systems Biology Approaches to Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disorders. Reverse engineering gene networks to identify key drivers of complex disease phenotypes.
E. E. Schadt and P. Y. Lum (2006)
J. Lipid Res. 47, 2601-2613
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hyperphagia, Severe Obesity, Impaired Cognitive Function, and Hyperactivity Associated With Functional Loss of One Copy of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene.
J. Gray, G. S.H. Yeo, J. J. Cox, J. Morton, A.-L. R. Adlam, J. M. Keogh, J. A. Yanovski, A. El Gharbawy, J. C. Han, Y.C. L. Tung, et al. (2006)
Diabetes 55, 3366-3371
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Peripherally administered desacetyl {alpha}-MSH and {alpha}-MSH both influence postnatal rat growth and associated rat hypothalamic protein expression.
C.-S. J. Wu, D. R. Greenwood, J. M. Cooney, D. J. Jensen, M. A. Tatnell, G. J. S. Cooper, and K. G. Mountjoy (2006)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E1372-E1380
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Brain Adipocytokine Action and Metabolic Regulation.
R. S. Ahima, Y. Qi, N. S. Singhal, M. B. Jackson, and P. E. Scherer (2006)
Diabetes 55, S145-S154
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms of Sympathetic Activation in Obesity-Related Hypertension.
M. Esler, N. Straznicky, N. Eikelis, K. Masuo, G. Lambert, and E. Lambert (2006)
Hypertension 48, 787-796
   Full Text »    PDF »
Postnatal environment overrides genetic and prenatal factors influencing offspring obesity and insulin resistance.
J. N. Gorski, A. A. Dunn-Meynell, T. G. Hartman, and B. E. Levin (2006)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 291, R768-R778
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Metabolic imprinting: critical impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis.
B. E Levin (2006)
Phil Trans R Soc B 361, 1107-1121
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Appetite and energy balance signals from adipocytes.
P. Trayhurn and C. Bing (2006)
Phil Trans R Soc B 361, 1237-1249
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endocrinology: the next 60 years.
W. S Dhillo, K. G Murphy, and S. Bloom (2006)
J. Endocrinol. 190, 7-10
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake..
D. Cota, K. Proulx, K. A. B. Smith, S. C. Kozma, G. Thomas, S. C. Woods, and R. J. Seeley (2006)
Science 312, 927-930
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Translocation of Synaptically Connected Interneurons across the Dentate Gyrus of the Early Postnatal Rat Hippocampus..
Y. M. Morozov, A. E. Ayoub, and P. Rakic (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 5017-5027
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin Increases Axonal Growth Cone Size in Developing Mouse Cortical Neurons by Convergent Signals Inactivating Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3beta.
A. Valerio, V. Ghisi, M. Dossena, C. Tonello, A. Giordano, A. Frontini, M. Ferrario, M. Pizzi, P. Spano, M. O. Carruba, et al. (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 12950-12958
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tamoxifen-Induced Anorexia Is Associated With Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibition in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus and Accumulation of Malonyl-CoA..
M. Lopez, C. J. Lelliott, S. Tovar, W. Kimber, R. Gallego, S. Virtue, M. Blount, M. J. Vazquez, N. Finer, T. J. Powles, et al. (2006)
Diabetes 55, 1327-1336
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Altered sleep regulation in leptin-deficient mice.
A. D. Laposky, J. Shelton, J. Bass, C. Dugovic, N. Perrino, and F. W. Turek (2006)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 290, R894-R903
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cybernetic principles in the systematic concept of hypothalamic feeding control.
O. Fricke, G. Lehmkuhl, and D. W Pfaff (2006)
Eur. J. Endocrinol. 154, 167-173
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Peptide YY3-36 Inhibits Both Anorexigenic Proopiomelanocortin and Orexigenic Neuropeptide Y Neurons: Implications for Hypothalamic Regulation of Energy Homeostasis.
C. Acuna-Goycolea and A. N. van den Pol (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 10510-10519
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neurogenesis in the Hypothalamus of Adult Mice: Potential Role in Energy Balance.
M. V. Kokoeva, H. Yin, and J. S. Flier (2005)
Science 310, 679-683
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NPY/AgRP Neurons Are Essential for Feeding in Adult Mice but Can Be Ablated in Neonates.
S. Luquet, F. A. Perez, T. S. Hnasko, and R. D. Palmiter (2005)
Science 310, 683-685
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Embracing Complexity, Inching Closer to Reality.
E. E. Schadt, A. Sachs, and S. Friend (2005)
Sci. STKE 2005, pe40
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Anorexia and Cachexia in Renal Failure--Is Leptin the Culprit?: Role of Leptin and Melanocortin Signaling in Uremia-Associated Cachexia. J Clin Invest 115: 1659-1665, 2005.
C. W, Y. PX, L. BM, C. RD, M. DL, M. RH, I. H, O. MH, W. K, B.-J. K, et al. (2005)
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 2245-2250
   Full Text »    PDF »
Nutritional Epigenomics of Metabolic Syndrome: New Perspective Against the Epidemic.
C. Gallou-Kabani and C. Junien (2005)
Diabetes 54, 1899-1906
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plasma leptin and ghrelin in the neonatal rat: interaction of dexamethasone and hypoxia.
E. D Bruder, L. Jacobson, and H. Raff (2005)
J. Endocrinol. 185, 477-484
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Use of Laser-Capture Microdissection for the Identification of Marker Genes for the Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus.
J. P. Segal, N. R. Stallings, C. E. Lee, L. Zhao, N. Socci, A. Viale, T. M. Harris, M. B. Soares, G. Childs, J. K. Elmquist, et al. (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 4181-4188
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activity-dependent Regulation of Synapse and Dendritic Spine Morphology in Developing Barrel Cortex Requires Phospholipase C-{beta}1 Signalling.
T. L. Spires, Z. Molnar, P. C. Kind, P. M. Cordery, A. L. Upton, C. Blakemore, and A. J. Hannan (2005)
Cereb Cortex 15, 385-393
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic hormones a.k.a. hypothalamic releasing factors.
R. Guillemin (2005)
J. Endocrinol. 184, 11-28
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Common Structural Basis for Constitutive Activity of the Ghrelin Receptor Family.
B. Holst, N. D. Holliday, A. Bach, C. E. Elling, H. M. Cox, and T. W. Schwartz (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 53806-53817
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A New ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel-Independent Mechanism Is Involved in Glucose-Excited Neurons of Mouse Arcuate Nucleus.
X. Fioramonti, A. Lorsignol, A. Taupignon, and L. Penicaud (2004)
Diabetes 53, 2767-2775
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NEUROSCIENCE: The Fat-Brain Axis Enters a New Dimension.
J. K. Elmquist and J. S. Flier (2004)
Science 304, 63-64
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882