Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 304 (5674): 1147-1150

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Autoimmune Disease and Impaired Uptake of Apoptotic Cells in MFG-E8-Deficient Mice

Rikinari Hanayama,1 Masato Tanaka,1,4 Kay Miyasaka,1,5 Katsuyuki Aozasa,2 Masato Koike,3 Yasuo Uchiyama,3 Shigekazu Nagata1,5,6*

Abstract: Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine and are swiftly engulfed by macrophages. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF) factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and that enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report that tingible body macrophages in the germinal centers of the spleen and lymph nodes strongly express MFG-E8. Many apoptotic lymphocytes were found on the MFG-E8–/– tingible body macrophages, but they were not efficiently engulfed. The MFG-E8–/– mice developed splenomegaly, with the formation of numerous germinal centers, and suffered from glomerulonephritis as a result of autoantibody production. These data demonstrate that MFG-E8 has a critical role in removing apoptotic B cells in the germinal centers and that its failure can lead to autoimmune diseases.

1 Department of Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
2 Department of Pathology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
3 Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
4 Laboratory for Innate Cellular Immunity, RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
5 Laboratory of Genetics, Integrated Biology Laboratories, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
6 Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: nagata{at}

Serum milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 elevation may subdivide systemic lupus erythematosus into two pathophysiologically distinct subsets.
N. Yamamoto, H. Yamaguchi, K. Ohmura, T. Yokoyama, H. Yoshifuji, N. Yukawa, D. Kawabata, T. Fujii, S. Morita, S. Nagata, et al. (2014)
Lupus 23, 386-394
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Adenovirus E1B 19-Kilodalton Protein Modulates Innate Immunity through Apoptotic Mimicry.
J. R. Radke, F. Grigera, D. S. Ucker, J. L. Cook, and M. J. Imperiale (2014)
J. Virol. 88, 2658-2669
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Evidence of HeLa Cell Apoptosis Induced with Tetraethylammonium Using Proteomics and Various Analytical Methods.
L. Huang, Q.-Y. Huang, and H.-Q. Huang (2014)
J. Biol. Chem. 289, 2217-2229
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells.
H. Yamaguchi, T. Maruyama, Y. Urade, and S. Nagata (2014)
eLife Sci 3, e02172
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The cell biology of mammalian fertilization.
M. Okabe (2013)
Development 140, 4471-4479
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia.
J. J. Neher, J. V. Emmrich, M. Fricker, P. K. Mander, C. Thery, and G. C. Brown (2013)
PNAS 110, E4098-E4107
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Macrophages: Gatekeepers of Tissue Integrity.
Y. Lavin and M. Merad (2013)
Cancer Immunology 1, 201-209
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphatidylserine-Targeting Antibody Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization and Promotes Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Differentiation.
Y. Yin, X. Huang, K. D. Lynn, and P. E. Thorpe (2013)
Cancer Immunology 1, 256-268
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Significance of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Protein Enrichment in Lipid Rafts for the Control of Autoimmunity.
Y. Wang, Y. Murakami, T. Yasui, S. Wakana, H. Kikutani, T. Kinoshita, and Y. Maeda (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 25490-25499
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The molecular basis of gamete recognition in mice and humans.
M. A. Avella, B. Xiong, and J. Dean (2013)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 19, 279-289
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of B lymphocyte stimulator in B cell biology: implications for the treatment of lupus.
J. Scholz, M. Oropallo, V. Sindhava, R. Goenka, and M. Cancro (2013)
Lupus 22, 350-360
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prolonged Apoptotic Cell Accumulation in Germinal Centers of Mer-Deficient Mice Causes Elevated B Cell and CD4+ Th Cell Responses Leading to Autoantibody Production.
T. N. Khan, E. B. Wong, C. Soni, and Z. S. M. Rahman (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 1433-1446
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mfge8 suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma by regulating smooth muscle contraction.
M. Kudo, S. M. A. Khalifeh Soltani, S. A. Sakuma, W. McKleroy, T.-H. Lee, P. G. Woodruff, J. W. Lee, K. Huang, C. Chen, M. Arjomandi, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 660-665
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Clearing the Dead: Apoptotic Cell Sensing, Recognition, Engulfment, and Digestion.
A. Hochreiter-Hufford and K. S. Ravichandran (2013)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5, a008748
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NADPH Oxidase Inhibits the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
A. M. Campbell, M. Kashgarian, and M. J. Shlomchik (2012)
Science Translational Medicine 4, 157ra141
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of Novel Genes Selectively Expressed in the Follicle-Associated Epithelium from the Meta-Analysis of Transcriptomics Data from Multiple Mouse Cell and Tissue Populations.
A. Kobayashi, D. S. Donaldson, T. Kanaya, S. Fukuda, J. K. Baillie, T. C. Freeman, H. Ohno, I. R. Williams, and N. A. Mabbott (2012)
DNA Res 19, 407-422
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synergistic effect of Tim4 and MFG-E8 null mutations on the development of autoimmunity.
M. Miyanishi, K. Segawa, and S. Nagata (2012)
Int. Immunol. 24, 551-559
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Apoptotic cells suppress mast cell inflammatory responses via the CD300a immunoreceptor.
C. Nakahashi-Oda, S. Tahara-Hanaoka, M. Shoji, Y. Okoshi, T. Nakano-Yokomizo, N. Ohkohchi, T. Yasui, H. Kikutani, S.-i. Honda, K. Shibuya, et al. (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 1493-1503
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
B Cell Tolerance and Positive Selection in Lupus.
D. Eilat and M. Wabl (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 503-509
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor-Factor 8 Attenuates Neutrophil Infiltration in Acute Lung Injury via Modulation of CXCR2.
M. Aziz, A. Matsuda, W.-L. Yang, A. Jacob, and P. Wang (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 393-402
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glucocorticoids Relieve Collectin-Driven Suppression of Apoptotic Cell Uptake in Murine Alveolar Macrophages through Downregulation of SIRP{alpha}.
A. L. McCubbrey, J. Sonstein, T. M. Ames, C. M. Freeman, and J. L. Curtis (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 112-119
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of TLT2 as an Engulfment Receptor for Apoptotic Cells.
A. de Freitas, S. Banerjee, N. Xie, H. Cui, K. I. Davis, A. Friggeri, M. Fu, E. Abraham, and G. Liu (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 6381-6388
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Apoptotic Cell Death and Efferocytosis in Atherosclerosis.
E. A. Van Vre, H. Ait-Oufella, A. Tedgui, and Z. Mallat (2012)
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32, 887-893
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phagocytosis by macrophages and endothelial cells inhibits procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.
R. Xie, C. Gao, W. Li, J. Zhu, V. Novakovic, J. Wang, R. Ma, J. Zhou, G. E. Gilbert, and J. Shi (2012)
Blood 119, 2325-2334
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cellular Regulation of the Inflammatory Response.
W. J. Janssen and P. M. Henson (2012)
Toxicol Pathol 40, 166-173
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Two-Step Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells.
S. Toda, R. Hanayama, and S. Nagata (2012)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 118-125
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PTEN Negatively Regulates Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells by Modulating Activation of Rac GTPase.
S. Mondal, S. Ghosh-Roy, F. Loison, Y. Li, Y. Jia, C. Harris, D. A. Williams, and H. R. Luo (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 5783-5794
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3)-associated phagocytosis is required for the efficient clearance of dead cells.
J. Martinez, J. Almendinger, A. Oberst, R. Ness, C. P. Dillon, P. Fitzgerald, M. O. Hengartner, and D. R. Green (2011)
PNAS 108, 17396-17401
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The innate immune system and the clearance of apoptotic cells.
A. Devitt and L. J. Marshall (2011)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 90, 447-457
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pericyte-Derived MFG-E8 Regulates Pathologic Angiogenesis.
S.-i. Motegi, W. W. Leitner, M. Lu, Y. Tada, M. Sardy, C. Wu, T. Chavakis, and M. C. Udey (2011)
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31, 2024-2034
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
P2X7 Is a Scavenger Receptor for Apoptotic Cells in the Absence of Its Ligand, Extracellular ATP.
B. J. Gu, B. M. Saunders, S. Petrou, and J. S. Wiley (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 2365-2375
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tumor-associated macrophages regulate tumorigenicity and anticancer drug responses of cancer stem/initiating cells.
M. Jinushi, S. Chiba, H. Yoshiyama, K. Masutomi, I. Kinoshita, H. Dosaka-Akita, H. Yagita, A. Takaoka, and H. Tahara (2011)
PNAS 108, 12425-12430
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression of milk fat globule EGF-factor 8 (MFG-E8) mRNA and protein in the human endometrium and its regulation by prolactin.
A. Franchi, S. Bocca, S. Anderson, R. Riggs, and S. Oehninger (2011)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 17, 360-371
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Marginal zone macrophages suppress innate and adaptive immunity to apoptotic cells in the spleen.
T. L. McGaha, Y. Chen, B. Ravishankar, N. van Rooijen, and M. C. I. Karlsson (2011)
Blood 117, 5403-5412
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Play a Major Role in Apoptotic Leukocyte-Induced Immune Modulation.
F. Bonnefoy, S. Perruche, M. Couturier, A. Sedrati, Y. Sun, P. Tiberghien, B. Gaugler, and P. Saas (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 5696-5705
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Antigen Is Required for Maturation and Activation of Pathogenic Anti-DNA Antibodies and Systemic Inflammation.
J. Venkatesh, H. Yoshifuji, D. Kawabata, P. Chinnasamy, A. Stanevsky, C. M. Grimaldi, J. Cohen-Solal, and B. Diamond (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 5304-5312
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Receptor for advanced glycation end products binds to phosphatidylserine and assists in the clearance of apoptotic cells.
M. He, H. Kubo, K. Morimoto, N. Fujino, T. Suzuki, T. Takahasi, M. Yamada, M. Yamaya, T. Maekawa, Y. Yamamoto, et al. (2011)
EMBO Rep. 12, 358-364
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cell Death Mechanisms and Their Implications in Toxicology.
S. Orrenius, P. Nicotera, and B. Zhivotovsky (2011)
Toxicol. Sci. 119, 3-19
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Autoimmune Kidney Disease and Impaired Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells in Mice with Macrophage Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor {gamma} or Retinoid X Receptor {alpha} Deficiency.
T. Roszer, M. P. Menendez-Gutierrez, M. I. Lefterova, D. Alameda, V. Nunez, M. A. Lazar, T. Fischer, and M. Ricote (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 621-631
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
HMGB1 inhibits macrophage activity in efferocytosis through binding to the {alpha}v{beta}3-integrin.
A. Friggeri, Y. Yang, S. Banerjee, Y.-J. Park, G. Liu, and E. Abraham (2010)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299, C1267-C1276
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of HMGB1 in efferocytosis: when the dead go unburied. Focus on "HMGB1 inhibits macrophage activity in efferocytosis through binding to the {alpha}v{beta}3-integrin".
D. S. Pisetsky (2010)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299, C1253-C1255
   Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired Apoptotic Cell Clearance in the Germinal Center by Mer-Deficient Tingible Body Macrophages Leads to Enhanced Antibody-Forming Cell and Germinal Center Responses.
Z. S. M. Rahman, W.-H. Shao, T. N. Khan, Y. Zhen, and P. L. Cohen (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 5859-5868
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Apoptotic Cells Activate NKT Cells through T Cell Ig-Like Mucin-Like-1 Resulting in Airway Hyperreactivity.
H.-H. Lee, E. H. Meyer, S. Goya, M. Pichavant, H. Y. Kim, X. Bu, S. E. Umetsu, J. C. Jones, P. B. Savage, Y. Iwakura, et al. (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 5225-5235
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The future of lupus therapy modulating autoantigen recognition.
A. Okamoto, K. Fujio, and K. Yamamoto (2010)
Lupus 19, 1474-1481
   Abstract »    PDF »
Engulfment of cerebral apoptotic bodies controls the course of prion disease in a mouse strain-dependent manner.
J. Kranich, N. J. Krautler, J. Falsig, B. Ballmer, S. Li, G. Hutter, P. Schwarz, R. Moos, C. Julius, G. Miele, et al. (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 2271-2281
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Find-me and eat-me signals in apoptotic cell clearance: progress and conundrums.
K. S. Ravichandran (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 1807-1817
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Clearance of apoptotic cells: implications in health and disease.
M. R. Elliott and K. S. Ravichandran (2010)
J. Cell Biol. 189, 1059-1070
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Review: Soluble innate immune pattern-recognition proteins for clearing dying cells and cellular components: implications on exacerbating or resolving inflammation.
M. L. Litvack and N. Palaniyar (2010)
Innate Immunity 16, 191-200
   Abstract »    PDF »
Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) modulates anti-nucleosomal autoantibody isotype and renal complement deposition in mice exposed to syngeneic late apoptotic cells.
Z.-j. Pan, S. Maier, K. Schwarz, J. Azbill, S. Akira, S. Uematsu, and A. D. Farris (2010)
Ann Rheum Dis 69, 1195-1199
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphatidylserine receptor Tim-4 is essential for the maintenance of the homeostatic state of resident peritoneal macrophages.
K. Wong, P. A. Valdez, C. Tan, S. Yeh, J.-A. Hongo, and W. Ouyang (2010)
PNAS 107, 8712-8717
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calreticulin: non-endoplasmic reticulum functions in physiology and disease.
L. I. Gold, P. Eggleton, M. T. Sweetwyne, L. B. Van Duyn, M. R. Greives, S.-M. Naylor, M. Michalak, and J. E. Murphy-Ullrich (2010)
FASEB J 24, 665-683
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
T Cell/Transmembrane, Ig, and Mucin-3 Allelic Variants Differentially Recognize Phosphatidylserine and Mediate Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells.
R. H. DeKruyff, X. Bu, A. Ballesteros, C. Santiago, Y.-L. E. Chim, H.-H. Lee, P. Karisola, M. Pichavant, G. G. Kaplan, D. T. Umetsu, et al. (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 1918-1930
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The small 11kDa nonstructural protein of human parvovirus B19 plays a key role in inducing apoptosis during B19 virus infection of primary erythroid progenitor cells.
A. Y. Chen, E. Y. Zhang, W. Guan, F. Cheng, S. Kleiboeker, T. M. Yankee, and J. Qiu (2010)
Blood 115, 1070-1080
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Autoantibodies against C1q in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Are Antigen-Driven.
M. Schaller, C. Bigler, D. Danner, H. J. Ditzel, and M. Trendelenburg (2009)
J. Immunol. 183, 8225-8231
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immature Dendritic Cell-Derived Exosomes Rescue Septic Animals Via Milk Fat Globule Epidermal Growth Factor VIII.
M. Miksa, R. Wu, W. Dong, H. Komura, D. Amin, Y. Ji, Z. Wang, H. Wang, T. S. Ravikumar, K. J. Tracey, et al. (2009)
J. Immunol. 183, 5983-5990
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Participation of the urokinase receptor in neutrophil efferocytosis.
Y.-J. Park, G. Liu, Y. Tsuruta, E. Lorne, and E. Abraham (2009)
Blood 114, 860-870
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic polymorphism in milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in human.
C. Hu, C. Wu, H. Tsai, S. Chang, W. Tsai, and P. Hsu (2009)
Lupus 18, 676-681
   Abstract »    PDF »
Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 blockade triggers tumor destruction through coordinated cell-autonomous and immune-mediated mechanisms.
M. Jinushi, M. Sato, A. Kanamoto, A. Itoh, S. Nagai, S. Koyasu, G. Dranoff, and H. Tahara (2009)
J. Exp. Med. 206, 1317-1326
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MFG-E8 Attenuates Intestinal Inflammation in Murine Experimental Colitis by Modulating Osteopontin-Dependent {alpha}v{beta}3 Integrin Signaling.
Md. M. Aziz, S. Ishihara, Y. Mishima, N. Oshima, I. Moriyama, T. Yuki, Y. Kadowaki, M. A. K. Rumi, Y. Amano, and Y. Kinoshita (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 7222-7232
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tim-3 mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cross-presentation.
M. Nakayama, H. Akiba, K. Takeda, Y. Kojima, M. Hashiguchi, M. Azuma, H. Yagita, and K. Okumura (2009)
Blood 113, 3821-3830
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Novel Subset of CD8{alpha}+ Dendritic Cells Localized in the Marginal Zone Is Responsible for Tolerance to Cell-Associated Antigens.
C.-H. Qiu, Y. Miyake, H. Kaise, H. Kitamura, O. Ohara, and M. Tanaka (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 4127-4136
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Follicular helper T cells are required for systemic autoimmunity.
M. A. Linterman, R. J. Rigby, Raphael. K. Wong, D. Yu, R. Brink, J. L. Cannons, P. L. Schwartzberg, M. C. Cook, G. D. Walters, and C. G. Vinuesa (2009)
J. Exp. Med. 206, 561-576
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A novel role for SED1 (MFG-E8) in maintaining the integrity of the epididymal epithelium.
A. S. Raymond and B. D. Shur (2009)
J. Cell Sci. 122, 849-858
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lactadherin and clearance of platelet-derived microvesicles.
S. K. Dasgupta, H. Abdel-Monem, P. Niravath, A. Le, R. V. Bellera, K. Langlois, S. Nagata, R. E. Rumbaut, and P. Thiagarajan (2009)
Blood 113, 1332-1339
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ferritin Expression in Rat Hepatocytes and Kupffer Cells after Lead Nitrate Treatment.
Y. Fan, T. Yamada, T. Shimizu, N. Nanashima, M. Akita, K. Suto, and S. Tsuchida (2009)
Toxicol Pathol 37, 209-217
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A New Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (Trem) Family Member, Trem-Like 4, Binds to Dead Cells and Is a DNAX Activation Protein 12-Linked Marker for Subsets of Mouse Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.
H. Hemmi, J. Idoyaga, K. Suda, N. Suda, K. Kennedy, M. Noda, A. Aderem, and R. M. Steinman (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 1278-1286
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase-2 Expression Is Required for Sulfation of RNase 9 and Mfge8 in Vivo.
A. J. Hoffhines, C. H. Jen, J. A. Leary, and K. L. Moore (2009)
J. Biol. Chem. 284, 3096-3105
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Milk Fat Globule Epidermal Growth Factor-Factor VIII Is Down-Regulated in Sepsis via the Lipopolysaccharide-CD14 Pathway.
H. Komura, M. Miksa, R. Wu, S. M. Goyert, and P. Wang (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 581-587
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Splenic Phagocytes Promote Responses to Nucleosomes in (NZB x NZW) F1 Mice.
A. Okamoto, K. Fujio, N. van Rooijen, N. H. Tsuno, K. Takahashi, H. Tsurui, S. Hirose, K. B. Elkon, and K. Yamamoto (2008)
J. Immunol. 181, 5264-5271
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PAI-1 inhibits neutrophil efferocytosis.
Y.-J. Park, G. Liu, E. F. Lorne, X. Zhao, J. Wang, Y. Tsuruta, J. Zmijewski, and E. Abraham (2008)
PNAS 105, 11784-11789
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spatiotemporal activation of Rac1 for engulfment of apoptotic cells.
M. Nakaya, M. Kitano, M. Matsuda, and S. Nagata (2008)
PNAS 105, 9198-9203
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Follicular dendritic cells control engulfment of apoptotic bodies by secreting Mfge8.
J. Kranich, N. J. Krautler, E. Heinen, M. Polymenidou, C. Bridel, A. Schildknecht, C. Huber, M. H. Kosco-Vilbois, R. Zinkernagel, G. Miele, et al. (2008)
J. Exp. Med. 205, 1293-1302
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integrin-dependent phagocytosis - spreading from microadhesion to new concepts.
A. G. Dupuy and E. Caron (2008)
J. Cell Sci. 121, 1773-1783
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 in the serum of human patients of systemic lupus erythematosus.
H. Yamaguchi, J. Takagi, T. Miyamae, S. Yokota, T. Fujimoto, S. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Naka, and S. Nagata (2008)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 83, 1300-1307
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Angiogenic endothelium shows lactadherin-dependent phagocytosis of aged erythrocytes and apoptotic cells.
M. H. A. M. Fens, E. Mastrobattista, A. M. de Graaff, F. M. Flesch, A. Ultee, J. T. Rasmussen, G. Molema, G. Storm, and R. M. Schiffelers (2008)
Blood 111, 4542-4550
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Crystal Structure of Lactadherin C2 Domain at 1.7A Resolution with Mutational and Computational Analyses of Its Membrane-binding Motif.
C. Shao, V. A. Novakovic, J. F. Head, B. A. Seaton, and G. E. Gilbert (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 7230-7241
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Migration to Apoptotic "Find-me" Signals Is Mediated via the Phagocyte Receptor G2A.
C. Peter, M. Waibel, C. G. Radu, L. V. Yang, O. N. Witte, K. Schulze-Osthoff, S. Wesselborg, and K. Lauber (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 5296-5305
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
{beta}-2-Glycoprotein 1-dependent Macrophage Uptake of Apoptotic Cells: BINDING TO LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN RECEPTOR FAMILY MEMBERS.
S. N. Maiti, K. Balasubramanian, J. A. Ramoth, and A. J. Schroit (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 3761-3766
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lack of Chromatin and Nuclear Fragmentation In Vivo Impairs the Production of Lupus Anti-Nuclear Antibodies.
L. Frisoni, L. McPhie, S.-A. Kang, M. Monestier, M. Madaio, M. Satoh, and R. Caricchio (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 7959-7966
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
DNA hypomethylation is crucial for apoptotic DNA to induce systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease in SLE-non-susceptible mice.
Z. K. Wen, W. Xu, L. Xu, Q. H. Cao, Y. Wang, Y. W. Chu, and S. D. Xiong (2007)
Rheumatology 46, 1796-1803
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ulcerative colitis and autoimmunity induced by loss of myeloid {alpha}v integrins.
A. Lacy-Hulbert, A. M. Smith, H. Tissire, M. Barry, D. Crowley, R. T. Bronson, J. T. Roes, J. S. Savill, and R. O. Hynes (2007)
PNAS 104, 15823-15828
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Class A scavenger receptors regulate tolerance against apoptotic cells, and autoantibodies against these receptors are predictive of systemic lupus.
F. Wermeling, Y. Chen, T. Pikkarainen, A. Scheynius, O. Winqvist, S. Izui, J. V. Ravetch, K. Tryggvason, and M. C.I. Karlsson (2007)
J. Exp. Med. 204, 2259-2265
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MFG-E8/Lactadherin Promotes Tumor Growth in an Angiogenesis-Dependent Transgenic Mouse Model of Multistage Carcinogenesis.
M. Neutzner, T. Lopez, X. Feng, E. S. Bergmann-Leitner, W. W. Leitner, and M. C. Udey (2007)
Cancer Res. 67, 6777-6785
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proteomics Analysis of Human Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque: A Feasibility Study of Direct Tissue Proteomics by Liquid Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
C. Bagnato, J. Thumar, V. Mayya, S.-I. Hwang, H. Zebroski, K. P. Claffey, C. Haudenschild, J. K. Eng, D. H. Lundgren, and D. K. Han (2007)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 6, 1088-1102
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Use Different Axl/Mertk/Tyro3 Receptors in Clearance of Apoptotic Cells.
H. M. Seitz, T. D. Camenisch, G. Lemke, H. S. Earp, and G. K. Matsushima (2007)
J. Immunol. 178, 5635-5642
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lactadherin Deficiency Leads to Apoptotic Cell Accumulation and Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Mice.
H. Ait-Oufella, K. Kinugawa, J. Zoll, T. Simon, J. Boddaert, S. Heeneman, O. Blanc-Brude, V. Barateau, S. Potteaux, R. Merval, et al. (2007)
Circulation 115, 2168-2177
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The EGF repeat and discoidin domain protein, SED1/MFG-E8, is required for mammary gland branching morphogenesis.
M. A. Ensslin and B. D. Shur (2007)
PNAS 104, 2715-2720
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of Galectin-9-Induced Death of Jurkat T Cells.
L.-H. Lu, R. Nakagawa, Y. Kashio, A. Ito, H. Shoji, N. Nishi, M. Hirashima, A. Yamauchi, and T. Nakamura (2007)
J. Biochem. 141, 157-172
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882