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Science 305 (5681): 200-205

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Cancer Immunotherapy: A Treatment for the Masses

Joseph N. Blattman, and Philip D. Greenberg*

Abstract: Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the exquisite power and specificity of the immune system for the treatment of malignancy. Although cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the immune system is clearly capable of recognizing and eliminating tumor cells. However, tumors frequently interfere with the development and function of immune responses. Thus, the challenge for immunotherapy is to use advances in cellular and molecular immunology to develop strategies that effectively and safely augment antitumor responses.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA, and Departments of Immunology and Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195–6527, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: pgreen{at}

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A. R. M. Kraft, F. Krux, S. Schimmer, C. Ohlen, P. D. Greenberg, and U. Dittmer (2007)
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Y. Dang, K. L. Knutson, V. Goodell, C. dela Rosa, L. G. Salazar, D. Higgins, J. Childs, and M. L. Disis (2007)
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Enhanced Antitumor Responses Elicited by Combinatorial Protein Transfer of Chemotactic and Costimulatory Molecules.
S. Liu, D. R. Breiter, G. Zheng, and A. Chen (2007)
J. Immunol. 178, 3301-3306
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Inactivated Sendai Virus Particles Eradicate Tumors by Inducing Immune Responses through Blocking Regulatory T Cells.
M. Kurooka and Y. Kaneda (2007)
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J. Greiner, M. Schmitt, L. Li, K. Giannopoulos, K. Bosch, A. Schmitt, K. Dohner, R. F. Schlenk, J. R. Pollack, H. Dohner, et al. (2006)
Blood 108, 4109-4117
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Spontaneous CD8 T Cell Responses against the Melanocyte Differentiation Antigen RAB38/NY-MEL-1 in Melanoma Patients.
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Random migration precedes stable target cell interactions of tumor-infiltrating T cells.
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Selective Targeting of Antitumor Immune Responses with Engineered Live-Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes.
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De novo Induction of a Cancer/Testis Antigen by 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Augments Adoptive Immunotherapy in a Murine Tumor Model.
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The In vivo Expansion Rate of Properly Stimulated Transferred CD8+ T Cells Exceeds That of an Aggressively Growing Mouse Tumor.
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Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Vaccine Therapy: A Concise Review.
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Human CTLA4 knock-in mice unravel the quantitative link between tumor immunity and autoimmunity induced by anti-CTLA-4 antibodies.
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Cancer Res. 65, 9536-9546
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Inhibition of NK Cell Activity through TGF-{beta}1 by Down-Regulation of NKG2D in a Murine Model of Head and Neck Cancer.
S. Dasgupta, M. Bhattacharya-Chatterjee, B. W. O'Malley Jr, and S. K. Chatterjee (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 5541-5550
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Chimeric NK-receptor-bearing T cells mediate antitumor immunotherapy.
T. Zhang, B. A. Lemoi, and C. L. Sentman (2005)
Blood 106, 1544-1551
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J. R. Ortaldo, R. T. Winkler-Pickett, E. W. Bere Jr, M. Watanabe, W. J. Murphy, and R. H. Wiltrout (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 693-699
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M. S. Gregory, S. Koh, E. Huang, R. R. Saff, A. Marshak-Rothstein, S. Mukai, and B. R. Ksander (2005)
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Artificial Antigen-Presenting Cells Transduced with Telomerase Efficiently Expand Epitope-Specific, Human Leukocyte Antigen-Restricted Cytotoxic T Cells.
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Cancer Res. 65, 5417-5427
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Recruiting dendritic cells to improve antibody therapy of cancer.
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PNAS 102, 6243-6244
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Science 308, 369-373
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J. Immunol. 174, 4373-4380
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The Evolution of Antibodies into Versatile Tumor-Targeting Agents.
M. Z. Lin, M. A. Teitell, and G. J. Schiller (2005)
Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 129-138
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