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Science 305 (5681): 209-212

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Exploiting Tolerance Processes in Transplantation

Herman Waldmann*, and Stephen Cobbold

Abstract: The full potential of organ transplantation has not yet been realized because of the hazards associated with the long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Modern research into mechanisms of immune tolerance offers the promise of reprogramming the immune system, so as to harness the body's natural tolerance mechanisms in the service of graft acceptance. This would allow the minimization of immunosuppressive treatment and offers the prospect of eventually weaning transplant recipients off their drugs.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13RE, UK.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail herman.waldmann{at}

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