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Science 305 (5681): 212-216

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Immune Therapy for Autoimmune Diseases

Lawrence Steinman

Abstract: Our increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease has revealed a number of checkpoints that can be targeted with immune therapy, including key mediators of lymphocyte adhesion and migration, destructive cytokines involved in tissue damage, and the complex of molecules critical in the presentation of self-antigen and the activation of autoaggressive T lymphocytes. In many organ-specific autoimmune diseases, the identity of the molecules attacked by T cells and autoantibodies is known and attempts are under way to tolerize the immune system with a high level of specificity to these targets.

Department of Neurological Sciences and Neurology, and Interdepartmental Program in Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

E-mail: steinman{at}

Improvement of Psoriasis after Tonsillectomy Is Associated with a Decrease in the Frequency of Circulating T Cells That Recognize Streptococcal Determinants and Homologous Skin Determinants.
R. H. Thorleifsdottir, S. L. Sigurdardottir, B. Sigurgeirsson, J. H. Olafsson, M. I. Sigurdsson, H. Petersen, S. Arnadottir, J. E. Gudjonsson, A. Johnston, and H. Valdimarsson (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 5160-5165
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modulation of postoperative cognitive decline via blockade of inflammatory cytokines outside the brain.
L. Steinman (2010)
PNAS 107, 20595-20596
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In vivo delivery of a microRNA-regulated transgene induces antigen-specific regulatory T cells and promotes immunologic tolerance.
A. Annoni, B. D. Brown, A. Cantore, L. S. Sergi, L. Naldini, and M.-G. Roncarolo (2009)
Blood 114, 5152-5161
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Direct crosstalk between mast cell-TNF and TNFR1-expressing endothelia mediates local tissue inflammation.
M. Kneilling, R. Mailhammer, L. Hultner, T. Schonberger, K. Fuchs, M. Schaller, D. Bukala, S. Massberg, C. A. Sander, H. Braumuller, et al. (2009)
Blood 114, 1696-1706
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Atheroprotective Effects of Alum Are Associated With Capture of Oxidized LDL Antigens and Activation of Regulatory T Cells.
M. Wigren, D. Bengtsson, P. Duner, K. Olofsson, H. Bjorkbacka, E. Bengtsson, G. N. Fredrikson, and J. Nilsson (2009)
Circ. Res. 104, e62-e70
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Anti-Ccl2 Spiegelmer Permits 75% Dose Reduction of Cyclophosphamide to Control Diffuse Proliferative Lupus Nephritis and Pneumonitis in MRL-Fas(lpr) Mice.
O. Kulkarni, D. Eulberg, N. Selve, S. Zollner, R. Allam, R. D. Pawar, S. Pfeiffer, S. Segerer, S. Klussmann, and H.-J. Anders (2009)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 328, 371-377
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitomycin C-treated dendritic cells inactivate autoreactive T cells: Toward the development of a tolerogenic vaccine in autoimmune diseases.
P. Terness, T. Oelert, S. Ehser, J. J. Chuang, I. Lahdou, C. Kleist, F. Velten, G. J. Hammerling, B. Arnold, and G. Opelz (2008)
PNAS 105, 18442-18447
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Shedded neuronal ICAM-5 suppresses T-cell activation.
L. Tian, J. Lappalainen, M. Autero, S. Hanninen, H. Rauvala, and C. G. Gahmberg (2008)
Blood 111, 3615-3625
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spiegelmer Inhibition of CCL2/MCP-1 Ameliorates Lupus Nephritis in MRL-(Fas)lpr Mice.
O. Kulkarni, R. D. Pawar, W. Purschke, D. Eulberg, N. Selve, K. Buchner, V. Ninichuk, S. Segerer, V. Vielhauer, S. Klussmann, et al. (2007)
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 18, 2350-2358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Blood and synovial fluid cytokine signatures in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a cross-sectional study.
W. de Jager, E. P A H Hoppenreijs, N. M Wulffraat, L. R Wedderburn, W. Kuis, and B. J Prakken (2007)
Ann Rheum Dis 66, 589-598
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Increased Frequencies of Cochlin-Specific T Cells in Patients with Autoimmune Sensorineural Hearing Loss.
M.-J. Baek, H.-M. Park, J. M. Johnson, C. Z. Altuntas, D. Jane-wit, R. Jaini, C. A. Solares, D. M. Thomas, E. J. Ball, N. G. Robertson, et al. (2006)
J. Immunol. 177, 4203-4210
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Controlling autoimmunity in sporadic inclusion-body myositis.
L. Steinman (2006)
Neurology 66, S56-S58
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Treatment of Autoimmune Neuroinflammation with a Synthetic Tryptophan Metabolite.
M. Platten, P. P. Ho, S. Youssef, P. Fontoura, H. Garren, E. M. Hur, R. Gupta, L. Y. Lee, B. A. Kidd, W. H. Robinson, et al. (2005)
Science 310, 850-855
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Suppressive Oligodeoxynucleotide Enhances the Efficacy of Myelin Cocktail/IL-4-Tolerizing DNA Vaccination and Treats Autoimmune Disease.
P. P. Ho, P. Fontoura, M. Platten, R. A. Sobel, J. J. DeVoss, L. Y. Lee, B. A. Kidd, B. H. Tomooka, J. Capers, A. Agrawal, et al. (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 6226-6234
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NK/iDC interaction results in IL-18 secretion by DCs at the synaptic cleft followed by NK cell activation and release of the DC maturation factor HMGB1.
C. Semino, G. Angelini, A. Poggi, and A. Rubartelli (2005)
Blood 106, 609-616
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Macrophages Sequentially Change Their Functional Phenotype in Response to Changes in Microenvironmental Influences.
R. D. Stout, C. Jiang, B. Matta, I. Tietzel, S. K. Watkins, and J. Suttles (2005)
J. Immunol. 175, 342-349
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Modulation of Memory CD4 T Cell Function and Survival Potential by Altering the Strength of the Recall Stimulus.
D. S. Patke and D. L. Farber (2005)
J. Immunol. 174, 5433-5443
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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