Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 305 (5684): 626-629

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

The Pathophysiology of Mitochondrial Cell Death

Douglas R. Green1*, and Guido Kroemer2*

Abstract: In the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, caspase activation is closely linked to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Numerous pro-apoptotic signal-transducing molecules and pathological stimuli converge on mitochondria to induce MOMP. The local regulation and execution of MOMP involve proteins from the Bcl-2 family, mitochondrial lipids, proteins that regulate bioenergetic metabolite flux, and putative components of the permeability transition pore. MOMP is lethal because it results in the release of caspase-activating molecules and caspase-independent death effectors, metabolic failure in the mitochondria, or both. Drugs designed to suppress excessive MOMP may avoid pathological cell death, and the therapeutic induction of MOMP may restore apoptosis in cancer cells in which it is disabled. The general rules governing the pathophysiology of MOMP and controversial issues regarding its regulation are discussed.

1 Division of Cellular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
2 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8125, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille-Desmoulins, F-94805 Villejuif, France.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: doug{at}liai.org (D.R.G.) and kroemer{at}igr.fr (G.K.)


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Glucose metabolism determines resistance of cancer cells to bioenergetic crisis after cytochrome-c release.
H. J. Huber, H. Dussmann, S. M. Kilbride, M. Rehm, and J. H. M. Prehn (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 7, 470
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial Channels: Ion Fluxes and More.
I. Szabo and M. Zoratti (2014)
Physiol Rev 94, 519-608
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ULK1 translocates to mitochondria and phosphorylates FUNDC1 to regulate mitophagy.
W. Wu, W. Tian, Z. Hu, G. Chen, L. Huang, W. Li, X. Zhang, P. Xue, C. Zhou, L. Liu, et al. (2014)
EMBO Rep.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Paeoniflorin protects cells from GalN/TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis via ER stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human L02 hepatocytes.
Z. Jiang, W. Chen, X. Yan, L. Bi, S. Guo, and Z. Zhan (2014)
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
RAB26 coordinates lysosome traffic and mitochondrial localization.
R. U. Jin and J. C. Mills (2014)
J. Cell Sci. 127, 1018-1032
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection.
S. K. Powers, A. J. Smuder, A. N. Kavazis, and J. C. Quindry (2014)
Physiology 29, 27-38
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Silencing of p53 RNA through transarterial delivery ameliorates renal tubular injury and downregulates GSK-3{beta} expression after ischemia-reperfusion injury.
T. Fujino, S. Muhib, N. Sato, and N. Hasebe (2013)
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 305, F1617-F1627
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chemical genetics unveils a key role of mitochondrial dynamics, cytochrome c release and IP3R activity in muscular dystrophy.
J. Giacomotto, N. Brouilly, L. Walter, M.-C. Mariol, J. Berger, L. Segalat, T. S. Becker, P. D. Currie, and K. Gieseler (2013)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 22, 4562-4578
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Induces NLRP3-Dependent Lysosomal Damage and Inflammasome Activation.
M. E. Heid, P. A. Keyel, C. Kamga, S. Shiva, S. C. Watkins, and R. D. Salter (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 5230-5238
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial Fusion Directs Cardiomyocyte Differentiation via Calcineurin and Notch Signaling.
A. Kasahara, S. Cipolat, Y. Chen, G. W. Dorn II, and L. Scorrano (2013)
Science 342, 734-737
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Actin-Related Protein2/3 Complex Regulates Mitochondrial-Associated Calcium Signaling during Salt Stress in Arabidopsis.
Y. Zhao, Z. Pan, Y. Zhang, X. Qu, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, X. Jiang, S. Huang, M. Yuan, K. S. Schumaker, et al. (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 4544-4559
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Inflammatory Apoptosis of Human Conjunctival Epithelial Cells and T Cells: Effect of Cyclosporin A.
J. Gao, R. Sana, V. Calder, M. Calonge, W. Lee, L. A. Wheeler, and M. E. Stern (2013)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 4717-4733
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
c-Src Modulates Estrogen-Induced Stress and Apoptosis in Estrogen-Deprived Breast Cancer Cells.
P. Fan, O. L. Griffith, F. A. Agboke, P. Anur, X. Zou, R. E. McDaniel, K. Creswell, S. H. Kim, J. A. Katzenellenbogen, J. W. Gray, et al. (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 4510-4520
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcium flux and calpain-mediated activation of the apoptosis-inducing factor contribute to enterovirus 71-induced apoptosis.
J.-R. Lu, W.-W. Lu, J.-Z. Lai, F.-L. Tsai, S.-H. Wu, C.-W. Lin, and S.-H. Kung (2013)
J. Gen. Virol. 94, 1477-1485
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modelling the effect of GRP78 on anti-oestrogen sensitivity and resistance in breast cancer.
J. H. Parmar, K. L. Cook, A. N. Shajahan-Haq, P. A. G. Clarke, I. Tavassoly, R. Clarke, J. J. Tyson, and W. T. Baumann (2013)
Interface Focus 3, 20130012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
JNK1/2 regulates ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ cross-talk during IL-1{beta}-mediated cell death in RINm5F and human primary {beta}-cells.
G. Verma, H. Bhatia, and M. Datta (2013)
Mol. Biol. Cell 24, 2058-2071
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Biodegradable synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for atherosclerosis.
S. Marrache and S. Dhar (2013)
PNAS 110, 9445-9450
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cardioprotection by the TSPO ligand 4'-chlorodiazepam is associated with inhibition of mitochondrial accumulation of cholesterol at reperfusion.
S. Paradis, V. Leoni, C. Caccia, A. Berdeaux, and D. Morin (2013)
Cardiovasc Res 98, 420-427
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
UBIAD1-mediated vitamin K2 synthesis is required for vascular endothelial cell survival and development.
J. M. Hegarty, H. Yang, and N. C. Chi (2013)
Development 140, 1713-1719
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prodeath Signaling of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Cardiac Myocytes After Ischemic Stress Occurs Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Dependent Heat Shock Protein 90-Mediated Mitochondrial Targeting.
M. Chen, P. Y. Sato, J. K. Chuprun, R. J. Peroutka, N. J. Otis, J. Ibetti, S. Pan, S.-S. Sheu, E. Gao, and W. J. Koch (2013)
Circ. Res. 112, 1121-1134
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Viral Inhibition of BAK Promotes Murine Cytomegalovirus Dissemination to Salivary Glands.
W. Handke, C. Luig, B. Popovic, A. Krmpotic, S. Jonjic, and W. Brune (2013)
J. Virol. 87, 3592-3596
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cyclophilin D Extramitochondrial Signaling Controls Cell Cycle Progression and Chemokine-directed Cell Motility.
M. Tavecchio, S. Lisanti, A. Lam, J. C. Ghosh, N. M. Martin, M. O'Connell, A. T. Weeraratna, A. V. Kossenkov, L. C. Showe, and D. C. Altieri (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 5553-5561
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synergistic Triggering of Superoxide Flashes by Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniport and Basal Reactive Oxygen Species Elevation.
T. Hou, X. Zhang, J. Xu, C. Jian, Z. Huang, T. Ye, K. Hu, M. Zheng, F. Gao, X. Wang, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 4602-4612
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Increased levels of reduced cytochrome b and mitophagy components are required to trigger nonspecific autophagy following induced mitochondrial dysfunction.
M. Deffieu, I. Bhatia-Kissova, B. Salin, D. J. Klionsky, B. Pinson, S. Manon, and N. Camougrand (2013)
J. Cell Sci. 126, 415-426
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Systems Analysis of Cancer Cell Heterogeneity in Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Subsequent to Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Permeabilization.
J. Schmid, H. Dussmann, G. J. Boukes, L. Flanagan, A. U. Lindner, C. L. O'Connor, M. Rehm, J. H. M. Prehn, and H. J. Huber (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 41546-41559
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sheeppox Virus SPPV14 Encodes a Bcl-2-Like Cell Death Inhibitor That Counters a Distinct Set of Mammalian Proapoptotic Proteins.
T. Okamoto, S. Campbell, N. Mehta, J. Thibault, P. M. Colman, M. Barry, D. C. S. Huang, and M. Kvansakul (2012)
J. Virol. 86, 11501-11511
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
{alpha}-Crystallin B prevents apoptosis after H2O2 exposure in mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes.
R. Chis, P. Sharma, N. Bousette, T. Miyake, A. Wilson, P. H. Backx, and A. O. Gramolini (2012)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303, H967-H978
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial Control of Cellular Life, Stress, and Death.
L. Galluzzi, O. Kepp, C. Trojel-Hansen, and G. Kroemer (2012)
Circ. Res. 111, 1198-1207
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ Hematopoietic progenitor cells: protection by IGF-1.
K. Floratou, E. Giannopoulou, A. Antonacopoulou, M. Karakantza, G. Adonakis, D. Kardamakis, and P. Matsouka (2012)
J Radiat Res 53, 672-685
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Remote ischaemic pre- and delayed postconditioning - similar degree of cardioprotection but distinct mechanisms.
M. Basalay, V. Barsukevich, S. Mastitskaya, A. Mrochek, J. Pernow, P.-O. Sjoquist, G. L. Ackland, A. V. Gourine, and A. Gourine (2012)
Exp Physiol 97, 908-917
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression of a Truncated Form of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Protein, {sigma}1 Receptor, Promotes Mitochondrial Energy Depletion and Apoptosis.
N. Shioda, K. Ishikawa, H. Tagashira, T. Ishizuka, H. Yawo, and K. Fukunaga (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 23318-23331
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chloroplasts of Arabidopsis Are the Source and a Primary Target of a Plant-Specific Programmed Cell Death Signaling Pathway.
C. Kim, R. Meskauskiene, S. Zhang, K. P. Lee, M. Lakshmanan Ashok, K. Blajecka, C. Herrfurth, I. Feussner, and K. Apel (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3026-3039
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cell survival, DNA damage, and oncogenic transformation after a transient and reversible apoptotic response.
H. L. Tang, H. M. Tang, K. H. Mak, S. Hu, S. S. Wang, K. M. Wong, C. S. T. Wong, H. Y. Wu, H. T. Law, K. Liu, et al. (2012)
Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 2240-2252
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Loss of mitochondrial protease OMA1 alters processing of the GTPase OPA1 and causes obesity and defective thermogenesis in mice.
P. M. Quiros, A. J. Ramsay, D. Sala, E. Fernandez-Vizarra, F. Rodriguez, J. R. Peinado, M. S. Fernandez-Garcia, J. A. Vega, J. A. Enriquez, A. Zorzano, et al. (2012)
EMBO J. 31, 2117-2133
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Steroid Receptor Coactivator-interacting Protein (SIP) Inhibits Caspase-independent Apoptosis by Preventing Apoptosis-inducing Factor (AIF) from Being Released from Mitochondria.
D. Wang, J. Liang, Y. Zhang, B. Gui, F. Wang, X. Yi, L. Sun, Z. Yao, and Y. Shang (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 12612-12621
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators.
L. Michelle, A. Cloutier, J. Toutant, L. Shkreta, P. Thibault, M. Durand, D. Garneau, D. Gendron, E. Lapointe, S. Couture, et al. (2012)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 954-967
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
FOXO3-induced reactive oxygen species are regulated by BCL2L11 (Bim) and SESN3.
J. Hagenbuchner, A. Kuznetsov, M. Hermann, B. Hausott, P. Obexer, and M. J. Ausserlechner (2012)
J. Cell Sci. 125, 1191-1203
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial functional specialization in glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibers: tailoring the organelle for optimal function.
M. Picard, R. T. Hepple, and Y. Burelle (2012)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302, C629-C641
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Catecholamine-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and mPTP opening: protective effect of curcumin.
M. Izem-Meziane, B. Djerdjouri, S. Rimbaud, F. Caffin, D. Fortin, A. Garnier, V. Veksler, F. Joubert, and R. Ventura-Clapier (2012)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 302, H665-H674
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
I{kappa}B Kinase {varepsilon}-Dependent Phosphorylation and Degradation of X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Sensitizes Cells to Virus-Induced Apoptosis.
P. Nakhaei, Q. Sun, M. Solis, T. Mesplede, E. Bonneil, S. Paz, R. Lin, and J. Hiscott (2012)
J. Virol. 86, 726-737
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Altered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in placentas from undernourished rat gestations.
L. Belkacemi, M. Desai, D. Michael Nelson, and M. G. Ross (2011)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 301, R1599-R1615
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of a Novel Mcl-1 Protein Binding Motif.
W. J. Placzek, M. Sturlese, B. Wu, J. F. Cellitti, J. Wei, and M. Pellecchia (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 39829-39835
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of Cholix Toxin-induced Apoptosis in HeLa Cells.
K. Ogura, K. Yahiro, H. Tsutsuki, S. Nagasawa, S. Yamasaki, J. Moss, and M. Noda (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 37207-37215
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector C induces apoptosis via caspase-8.
X. Tang, Z. Xing, H. Tang, L. Liang, and M. Zhao (2011)
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin 43, 779-786
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Megakaryocytes possess a functional intrinsic apoptosis pathway that must be restrained to survive and produce platelets.
E. C. Josefsson, C. James, K. J. Henley, M. A. Debrincat, K. L. Rogers, M. R. Dowling, M. J. White, E. A. Kruse, R. M. Lane, S. Ellis, et al. (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 2017-2031
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) engages the mitochondrial fission machinery to induce host cell death.
P. Jain, Z.-Q. Luo, and S. R. Blanke (2011)
PNAS 108, 16032-16037
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Requirement of FADD, NEMO, and BAX/BAK for Aberrant Mitochondrial Function in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Necrosis.
K. M. Irrinki, K. Mallilankaraman, R. J. Thapa, H. C. Chandramoorthy, F. J. Smith, N. R. Jog, R. K. Gandhirajan, S. G. Kelsen, S. R. Houser, M. J. May, et al. (2011)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 31, 3745-3758
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deciphering the rules of programmed cell death to improve therapy of cancer and other diseases.
A. Strasser, S. Cory, and J. M. Adams (2011)
EMBO J. 30, 3667-3683
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial superoxide flashes: metabolic biomarkers of skeletal muscle activity and disease.
L. Wei, G. Salahura, S. Boncompagni, K. A. Kasischke, F. Protasi, S.-S. Sheu, and R. T. Dirksen (2011)
FASEB J 25, 3068-3078
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A yeast BH3-only protein mediates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.
S. Buttner, D. Ruli, F.-N. Vogtle, L. Galluzzi, B. Moitzi, T. Eisenberg, O. Kepp, L. Habernig, D. Carmona-Gutierrez, P. Rockenfeller, et al. (2011)
EMBO J. 30, 2779-2792
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Apoptosis and the selective survival of host animals following thermal bleaching in zooxanthellate corals.
D. Tchernov, H. Kvitt, L. Haramaty, T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, H. Rosenfeld, and P. G. Falkowski (2011)
PNAS 108, 9905-9909
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondria Determine the Efficacy of Anticancer Agents that Interact with DNA but Not the Cytoskeleton.
K. Hara, E. Kasahara, N. Takahashi, M. Konishi, J. Inoue, M. Jikumaru, S. Kubo, H. Okamura, E. Sato, and M. Inoue (2011)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 337, 838-845
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Autophagy Protects Against Aminochrome-Induced Cell Death in Substantia Nigra-Derived Cell Line.
I. Paris, P. Munoz, S. Huenchuguala, E. Couve, L. H. Sanders, J. T. Greenamyre, P. Caviedes, and J. Segura-Aguilar (2011)
Toxicol. Sci. 121, 376-388
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Apoptosis: from biology to therapeutic targeting.
O. A. O'Connor (2011)
Ann. Onc. 22, iv76-iv79
   Full Text »    PDF »
Naturally occurring, tumor-specific, therapeutic proteins.
K. Argiris, C. Panethymitaki, and M. Tavassoli (2011)
Experimental Biology and Medicine 236, 524-536
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of JNK activity in the apoptotic response of intestinal epithelial cells.
R. M. Ray, S. Jin, M. N. Bavaria, and L. R. Johnson (2011)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 300, G761-G770
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Apoptosis in Leishmania through Ca2+-dependent and Caspase-independent Mechanism.
S. Dolai, S. Pal, R. K. Yadav, and S. Adak (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 13638-13646
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MK-STYX, a Catalytically Inactive Phosphatase Regulating Mitochondrially Dependent Apoptosis.
N. M. Niemi, N. J. Lanning, J. A. Klomp, S. W. Tait, Y. Xu, K. J. Dykema, L. O. Murphy, L. A. Gaither, H. E. Xu, K. A. Furge, et al. (2011)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 31, 1357-1368
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The unexpected link between infection-induced apoptosis and a TH17 immune response.
C. F. Brereton and J. M. Blander (2011)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 89, 565-576
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amphipathic Tail-anchoring Peptide and Bcl-2 Homology Domain-3 (BH3) Peptides from Bcl-2 Family Proteins Induce Apoptosis through Different Mechanisms.
J.-K. Ko, K.-H. Choi, J. Peng, F. He, Z. Zhang, N. Weisleder, J. Lin, and J. Ma (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 9038-9048
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Citrate Induces Apoptotic Cell Death: A Promising Way to Treat Gastric Carcinoma?.
Y. LU, X. ZHANG, H. ZHANG, J. LAN, G. HUANG, E. VARIN, H. LINCET, L. POULAIN, and P. ICARD (2011)
Anticancer Res 31, 797-805
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential apoptosis-related protein expression, mitochondrial properties, proteolytic enzyme activity, and DNA fragmentation between skeletal muscles.
E. M. McMillan and J. Quadrilatero (2011)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 300, R531-R543
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fragmented mitochondria are sensitized to Bax insertion and activation during apoptosis.
C. Brooks, S.-G. Cho, C.-Y. Wang, T. Yang, and Z. Dong (2011)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300, C447-C455
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bax Activation by Engagement with, Then Release from, the BH3 Binding Site of Bcl-xL.
F. Gautier, Y. Guillemin, P. F. Cartron, T. Gallenne, N. Cauquil, T. Le Diguarher, P. Casara, F. M. Vallette, S. Manon, J. A. Hickman, et al. (2011)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 31, 832-844
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The DNA Damage Response Pathway Regulates the Alternative Splicing of the Apoptotic Mediator Bcl-x.
L. Shkreta, L. Michelle, J. Toutant, M. L. Tremblay, and B. Chabot (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 331-340
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor signaling is required for maintenance of the growth plate in postnatal life.
T. Hirai, A. S. Chagin, T. Kobayashi, S. Mackem, and H. M. Kronenberg (2011)
PNAS 108, 191-196
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integration of Apoptosis and Metabolism.
C. H. Yi, H. Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, and J. Yuan (2011)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 76, 375-387
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphoproteome Analysis of Functional Mitochondria Isolated from Resting Human Muscle Reveals Extensive Phosphorylation of Inner Membrane Protein Complexes and Enzymes.
X. Zhao, I. R. Leon, S. Bak, M. Mogensen, K. Wrzesinski, K. Hojlund, and O. N. Jensen (2011)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 10, M110.000299
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Heterodimerization of BAK and MCL-1 Activated by Detergent Micelles.
Q. Liu and K. Gehring (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 41202-41210
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
BAX and Tumor Suppressor TRP53 Are Important in Regulating Mutagenesis in Spermatogenic Cells in Mice.
G. Xu, K. S. Vogel, C. A. McMahan, D. C. Herbert, and C. A. Walter (2010)
Biol Reprod 83, 979-987
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Heat Shock Protein 60 Regulation of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Tumor Cells.
J. C. Ghosh, M. D. Siegelin, T. Dohi, and D. C. Altieri (2010)
Cancer Res. 70, 8988-8993
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The life span of short-lived plasma cells is partly determined by a block on activation of apoptotic caspases acting in combination with endoplasmic reticulum stress.
H. W. Auner, C. Beham-Schmid, N. Dillon, and P. Sabbattini (2010)
Blood 116, 3445-3455
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Caloric restriction delays cardiac ageing in rats: role of mitochondria.
B. Niemann, Y. Chen, H. Issa, R.-E. Silber, and S. Rohrbach (2010)
Cardiovasc Res 88, 267-276
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Preclinical Characterization of Mitochondria-Targeted Small Molecule Hsp90 Inhibitors, Gamitrinibs, in Advanced Prostate Cancer.
B. H. Kang, M. D. Siegelin, J. Plescia, C. M. Raskett, D. S. Garlick, T. Dohi, J. B. Lian, G. S. Stein, L. R. Languino, and D. C. Altieri (2010)
Clin. Cancer Res. 16, 4779-4788
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial shape changes: orchestrating cell pathophysiology.
S. Campello and L. Scorrano (2010)
EMBO Rep. 11, 678-684
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Photodynamic Hypericin Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.
X. Wang, Y. Guo, S. Yang, C. Wang, X. Fu, J. Wang, Y. Mao, J. Zhang, and Y. Li (2010)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 334, 847-853
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
New insights into the role of mitochondria in aging: mitochondrial dynamics and more.
A. Y. Seo, A.-M. Joseph, D. Dutta, J. C. Y. Hwang, J. P. Aris, and C. Leeuwenburgh (2010)
J. Cell Sci. 123, 2533-2542
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hepatocyte Death: A Clear and Present Danger.
H. Malhi, M. E. Guicciardi, and G. J. Gores (2010)
Physiol Rev 90, 1165-1194
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Afa/Dr-Expressing, Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Strain C1845 Triggers F1845 Fimbria-Dependent Phosphatidylserine Externalization on Neutrophil-Like Differentiated PLB-985 Cells through an Apoptosis-Independent Mechanism.
N. Semiramoth, A. Gleizes, I. Turbica, C. Sandre, V. Marin-Esteban, R. Gorges, A. Servin, and S. Chollet-Martin (2010)
Infect. Immun. 78, 2974-2983
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Pan-Bcl-2 Inhibitor (-)-Gossypol Triggers Autophagic Cell Death in Malignant Glioma.
V. Voss, C. Senft, V. Lang, M. W. Ronellenfitsch, J. P. Steinbach, V. Seifert, and D. Kogel (2010)
Mol. Cancer Res. 8, 1002-1016
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Drp1 dephosphorylation in ATP depletion-induced mitochondrial injury and tubular cell apoptosis.
S.-G. Cho, Q. Du, S. Huang, and Z. Dong (2010)
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 299, F199-F206
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GOing Bayesian: model-based gene set analysis of genome-scale data.
S. Bauer, J. Gagneur, and P. N. Robinson (2010)
Nucleic Acids Res. 38, 3523-3532
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rotenone Enhances the Antifungal Properties of Staurosporine.
A. Castro, C. Lemos, A. Falcao, A. S. Fernandes, N. L. Glass, and A. Videira (2010)
Eukaryot. Cell 9, 906-914
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Global Targeting of Subcellular Heat Shock Protein-90 Networks for Therapy of Glioblastoma.
M. D. Siegelin, J. Plescia, C. M. Raskett, C. A. Gilbert, A. H. Ross, and D. C. Altieri (2010)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 9, 1638-1646
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Perturbation of the Bcl-2 Network and an Induced Noxa/Bcl-xL Interaction Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction after DNA Damage.
H. Lopez, L. Zhang, N. M. George, X. Liu, X. Pang, J. J. D. Evans, N. M. Targy, and X. Luo (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 15016-15026
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Manipulation of Death Pathways in Desmin-Related Cardiomyopathy.
A. Maloyan, J. Sayegh, H. Osinska, B. H. L. Chua, and J. Robbins (2010)
Circ. Res. 106, 1524-1532
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Involvement of Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in Ethylbenzene-Induced Renal Toxicity in Rat.
M. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, J. Yang, D. Yang, J. Liu, and J. Li (2010)
Toxicol. Sci. 115, 295-303
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Estrogen Receptor {beta} Agonism Increases Survival in Experimentally Induced Sepsis and Ameliorates the Genomic Sepsis Signature: A Pharmacogenomic Study.
E. Christaki, S. M. Opal, J. C. Keith Jr, N. Kessinian, J. E. Palardy, N. A. Parejo, E. Lavallie, L. Racie, W. Mounts, M. S. Malamas, et al. (2010)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 201, 1250-1257
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitochondrial DNA Toxicity in Forebrain Neurons Causes Apoptosis, Neurodegeneration, and Impaired Behavior.
K. H. Lauritzen, O. Moldestad, L. Eide, H. Carlsen, G. Nesse, J. F. Storm, I. M. Mansuy, L. H. Bergersen, and A. Klungland (2010)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 30, 1357-1367
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Up-Regulation of Histamine H4 Receptors Contributes to Splenic Apoptosis in Septic Mice: Counteraction of the Antiapoptotic Action of Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B.
N. Matsuda, H. Teramae, M. Futatsugi, K.-i. Takano, S. Yamamoto, K. Tomita, T. Suzuki, H. Yokoo, K. Koike, and Y. Hattori (2010)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 332, 730-737
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activities of SYK and PLC{gamma}2 Predict Apoptotic Response of CLL Cells to SRC Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Dasatinib.
Z. Song, P. Lu, R. R. Furman, J. P. Leonard, P. Martin, L. Tyrell, F. Y. Lee, D. M. Knowles, M. Coleman, and Y. L. Wang (2010)
Clin. Cancer Res. 16, 587-599
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bax Contains Two Functional Mitochondrial Targeting Sequences and Translocates to Mitochondria in a Conformational Change- and Homo-oligomerization-driven Process.
N. M. George, N. Targy, J. J. D. Evans, L. Zhang, and X. Luo (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 1384-1392
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882