Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 307 (5710): 731-734

Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Nod2-Dependent Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in the Intestinal Tract

Koichi S. Kobayashi,1* Mathias Chamaillard,3,4 Yasunori Ogura,1 Octavian Henegariu,1 Naohiro Inohara,3 Gabriel Nuñez,3,4{dagger} Richard A. Flavell1,2{dagger}{ddagger}

Abstract: The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive. Here we show that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod2-deficient mice. These animals are susceptible to bacterial infection via the oral route but not through intravenous or peritoneal delivery. Nod2 is required for the expression of a subgroup of intestinal anti-microbial peptides, known as cryptdins. The Nod2 protein is thus a critical regulator of bacterial immunity within the intestine, providing a possible mechanism for Nod2 mutations in CD.

1 Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
2 The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
3 Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
4 Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

* Present address: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

{dagger} These authors contributed equally to this work.

{ddagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: richard.flavell{at}

Robustness trade-offs and host-microbial symbiosis in the immune system.
H. Kitano and K. Oda (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 2, 2006.0022
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Containing Protein 2 Controls Host Response to Campylobacter jejuni in Il10-/- Mice.
X. Sun and C. Jobin (2014)
The Journal of Infectious Disease
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
XIAP variants in male Crohn's disease.
Y. Zeissig, B.-S. Petersen, S. Milutinovic, E. Bosse, G. Mayr, K. Peuker, J. Hartwig, A. Keller, M. Kohl, M. W. Laass, et al. (2014)
   Abstract »    Full Text »
Type I interferon signalling in the intestinal epithelium affects Paneth cells, microbial ecology and epithelial regeneration.
M. Tschurtschenthaler, J. Wang, C. Fricke, T. M. J. Fritz, L. Niederreiter, T. E. Adolph, E. Sarcevic, S. Kunzel, F. A. Offner, U. Kalinke, et al. (2014)
   Abstract »    Full Text »
FADD and Caspase-8 Mediate Priming and Activation of the Canonical and Noncanonical Nlrp3 Inflammasomes.
P. Gurung, P. K. Anand, R. K. S. Malireddi, L. Vande Walle, N. Van Opdenbosch, C. P. Dillon, R. Weinlich, D. R. Green, M. Lamkanfi, and T.-D. Kanneganti (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 1835-1846
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ubiquitin in the immune system.
J. Zinngrebe, A. Montinaro, N. Peltzer, and H. Walczak (2014)
EMBO Rep. 15, 28-45
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Role of NOD2 in Murine and Human Melioidosis.
N. D. Myers, N. Chantratita, W. R. Berrington, W. Chierakul, D. Limmathurotsakul, V. Wuthiekanun, J. D. Robertson, H. D. Liggitt, S. J. Peacock, S. J. Skerrett, et al. (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 300-307
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NF-{kappa}B1 Inhibits NOD2-Induced Cytokine Secretion through ATF3-Dependent Mechanisms.
S. Zheng and C. Abraham (2013)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 33, 4857-4871
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of TLR10 as a Key Mediator of the Inflammatory Response to Listeria monocytogenes in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Macrophages.
T. Regan, K. Nally, R. Carmody, A. Houston, F. Shanahan, J. MacSharry, and E. Brint (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 6084-6092
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ATG16L1 Crohn's disease risk stresses the endoplasmic reticulum of Paneth cells.
A. Kaser and R. S. Blumberg (2013)
   Full Text »
The value of experimental models of colitis in predicting efficacy of biological therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases.
V. Valatas, M. Vakas, and G. Kolios (2013)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 305, G763-G785
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
RIP2 activity in inflammatory disease and implications for novel therapeutics.
J. C. Jun, F. Cominelli, and D. W. Abbott (2013)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 94, 927-932
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recent advances in inflammatory bowel disease: mucosal immune cells in intestinal inflammation.
M. Z. Cader and A. Kaser (2013)
Gut 62, 1653-1664
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recognition of gut microbiota by NOD2 is essential for the homeostasis of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes.
W. Jiang, X. Wang, B. Zeng, L. Liu, A. Tardivel, H. Wei, J. Han, H. R. MacDonald, J. Tschopp, Z. Tian, et al. (2013)
J. Exp. Med. 210, 2465-2476
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Combined Stimulation of Toll-Like Receptor 5 and NOD1 Strongly Potentiates Activity of NF-{kappa}B, Resulting in Enhanced Innate Immune Reactions and Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection.
A. I. Tukhvatulin, I. I. Gitlin, D. V. Shcheblyakov, N. M. Artemicheva, L. G. Burdelya, M. M. Shmarov, B. S. Naroditsky, A. V. Gudkov, A. L. Gintsburg, and D. Y. Logunov (2013)
Infect. Immun. 81, 3855-3864
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NOD2 and pouch complications in UC patients: old-world clinical dogmas give way to biological definitions.
I. Dotan and S. E. Plevy (2013)
Gut 62, 1390-1391
   Full Text »    PDF »
The Therapeutic Potential of Modifying Inflammasomes and NOD-Like Receptors.
F. Di Virgilio (2013)
Pharmacol. Rev. 65, 872-905
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of intestinal microbiota by the NLR protein family.
A. Biswas and K. S. Kobayashi (2013)
Int. Immunol. 25, 207-214
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mouse Paneth cell antimicrobial function is independent of Nod2.
M. T. Shanahan, I. M. Carroll, E. Grossniklaus, A. White, R. J. von Furstenberg, R. Barner, A. A. Fodor, S. J. Henning, R. B. Sartor, and A. S. Gulati (2013)
   Abstract »    Full Text »
NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes are essential for distinct outcomes of decreased cytokines but enhanced bacterial killing upon chronic Nod2 stimulation.
M. Hedl and C. Abraham (2013)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 304, G583-G596
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 2 Signaling Promotes Hyperresponsive Macrophages and Colitis in IL-10-Deficient Mice.
J. Jamontt, S. Petit, N. Clark, S. J. Parkinson, and P. Smith (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 2948-2958
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Discrete Ubiquitin-Mediated Network Regulates the Strength of NOD2 Signaling.
J. T. Tigno-Aranjuez, X. Bai, and D. W. Abbott (2013)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 33, 146-158
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Association of a NOD2 Gene Polymorphism and T-Helper 17 Cells With Presumed Ocular Toxoplasmosis.
M. S. Dutra, S. R. Bela, A. L. Peixoto-Rangel, M. Fakiola, A. G. Cruz, A. Gazzinelli, H. F. Quites, L. M. G. Bahia-Oliveira, R. G. Peixe, W. R. Campos, et al. (2013)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 207, 152-163
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phenotyping of Nod1/2 double deficient mice and characterization of Nod1/2 in systemic inflammation and associated renal disease.
I. Stroo, L. M. Butter, N. Claessen, G. J. Teske, S. J. Rubino, S. E. Girardin, S. Florquin, and J. C. Leemans (2012)
Biology Open 1, 1239-1247
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proteasomal Degradation of Nod2 Protein Mediates Tolerance to Bacterial Cell Wall Components.
K.-H. Lee, A. Biswas, Y.-J. Liu, and K. S. Kobayashi (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 39800-39811
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Increased expression of interleukin-32 in the inflamed ileum of ankylosing spondylitis patients.
F. Ciccia, A. Rizzo, A. Accardo-Palumbo, A. Giardina, M. Bombardieri, G. Guggino, S. Taverna, G. D. Leo, R. Alessandro, and G. Triolo (2012)
Rheumatology 51, 1966-1972
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Toll or Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) Domain-containing Adaptor Inducing Interferon-{beta} (TRIF)-mediated Caspase-11 Protease Production Integrates Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Protein- and Nlrp3 Inflammasome-mediated Host Defense against Enteropathogens.
P. Gurung, R. K. S. Malireddi, P. K. Anand, D. Demon, L. V. Walle, Z. Liu, P. Vogel, M. Lamkanfi, and T.-D. Kanneganti (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 34474-34483
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Innate Immune Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis.
A. K. Azad, W. Sadee, and L. S. Schlesinger (2012)
Infect. Immun. 80, 3343-3359
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-binding Protein (JNKBP1) Acts as a Negative Regulator of NOD2 Protein Signaling by Inhibiting Its Oligomerization Process.
A. Lecat, E. Di Valentin, J. Somja, S. Jourdan, M. Fillet, T. A. Kufer, Y. Habraken, C. Sadzot, E. Louis, P. Delvenne, et al. (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 29213-29226
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Innate immune signalling at the intestinal epithelium in homeostasis and disease.
J. Pott and M. Hornef (2012)
EMBO Rep. 13, 684-698
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NOD2 Signaling Contributes to Host Defense in the Lungs against Escherichia coli Infection.
B. Theivanthiran, S. Batra, G. Balamayooran, S. Cai, K. Kobayashi, R. A. Flavell, and S. Jeyaseelan (2012)
Infect. Immun. 80, 2558-2569
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microbiota, Disease, and Back to Health: A Metastable Journey.
R. Blumberg and F. Powrie (2012)
Science Translational Medicine 4, 137rv7
   Full Text »    PDF »
Joint NOD2/RIPK2 Signaling Regulates IL-17 Axis and Contributes to the Development of Experimental Arthritis.
S. M. Vieira, T. M. Cunha, R. F. O. Franca, L. G. Pinto, J. Talbot, W. M. Turato, H. P. Lemos, J. B. Lima, W. A. Verri Jr., S. C. L. Almeida, et al. (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 5116-5122
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GBP5 Promotes NLRP3 Inflammasome Assembly and Immunity in Mammals.
A. R. Shenoy, D. A. Wellington, P. Kumar, H. Kassa, C. J. Booth, P. Cresswell, and J. D. MacMicking (2012)
Science 336, 481-485
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interleukin-22 Is Produced by Invariant Natural Killer T Lymphocytes during Influenza A Virus Infection: POTENTIAL ROLE IN PROTECTION AGAINST LUNG EPITHELIAL DAMAGES.
C. Paget, S. Ivanov, J. Fontaine, J. Renneson, F. Blanc, M. Pichavant, L. Dumoutier, B. Ryffel, J. C. Renauld, P. Gosset, et al. (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 8816-8829
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) promotes susceptibility of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) deficient mice to colitis.
F. A. Carvalho, I. Nalbantoglu, S. Ortega-Fernandez, J. D. Aitken, Y. Su, O. Koren, W. A. Walters, R. Knight, R. E. Ley, M. Vijay-Kumar, et al. (2012)
Gut 61, 373-384
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TLR and Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-like Receptor Signals Differentially Regulate Exogenous Antigen Presentation.
C. S. Wagner and P. Cresswell (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 686-693
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Streptococcus pneumoniae Stimulates a STING- and IFN Regulatory Factor 3-Dependent Type I IFN Production in Macrophages, which Regulates RANTES Production in Macrophages, Cocultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells, and Mouse Lungs.
U. Koppe, K. Hogner, J.-M. Doehn, H. C. Muller, M. Witzenrath, B. Gutbier, S. Bauer, T. Pribyl, S. Hammerschmidt, J. Lohmeyer, et al. (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 811-817
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TLR2 and RIP2 Pathways Mediate Autophagy of Listeria monocytogenes via Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Activation.
P. K. Anand, S. W. G. Tait, M. Lamkanfi, A. O. Amer, G. Nunez, G. Pages, J. Pouyssegur, M. A. McGargill, D. R. Green, and T.-D. Kanneganti (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 42981-42991
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 regulates suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression in Burkholderia pseudomallei-infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.
M. Pudla, A. Kananurak, K. Limposuwan, S. Sirisinha, and P. Utaisincharoen (2011)
Innate Immunity 17, 532-540
   Abstract »    PDF »
The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes NOD1 and NOD2 have conserved anti-bacterial roles in zebrafish.
S. H. Oehlers, M. V. Flores, C. J. Hall, S. Swift, K. E. Crosier, and P. S. Crosier (2011)
Dis. Model. Mech. 4, 832-841
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Crohn's disease: NOD2, autophagy and ER stress converge.
T. Fritz, L. Niederreiter, T. Adolph, R. S. Blumberg, and A. Kaser (2011)
Gut 60, 1580-1588
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nod2 is essential for temporal development of intestinal microbial communities.
A. Rehman, C. Sina, O. Gavrilova, R. Hasler, S. Ott, J. F. Baines, S. Schreiber, and P. Rosenstiel (2011)
Gut 60, 1354-1362
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cutting Edge: Crohn's Disease-Associated Nod2 Mutation Limits Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines To Protect the Host from Enterococcus faecalis-Induced Lethality.
Y.-G. Kim, M. H. Shaw, N. Warner, J.-H. Park, F. Chen, Y. Ogura, and G. Nunez (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 2849-2852
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nod-like receptors in intestinal homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer.
C. Werts, S. Rubino, A. Ling, S. E. Girardin, and D. J. Philpott (2011)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 90, 471-482
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Innate Immunity in the Small Intestine of the Preterm Infant..
S. J. McElroy and J.-H. Weitkamp (2011)
NeoReviews 12, e517-e526
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Organic dust augments nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain expression via an NF-{kappa}B pathway to negatively regulate inflammatory responses.
J. A. Poole, T. Kielian, T. A. Wyatt, A. M. Gleason, J. Stone, K. Palm, W. W. West, and D. J. Romberger (2011)
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 301, L296-L306
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intracellular recognition of pathogens and autophagy as an innate immune host defence.
T. Yano and S. Kurata (2011)
J. Biochem. 150, 143-149
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Distinct Roles for Nod2 Protein and Autocrine Interleukin-1{beta} in Muramyl Dipeptide-induced Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation and Cytokine Secretion in Human Macrophages.
M. Hedl and C. Abraham (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 26440-26449
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Silencing Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 (SOCS1) in Macrophages Improves Mycobacterium tuberculosis Control in an Interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma})-dependent Manner.
B. Carow, X. qun Ye, D. Gavier-Widen, S. Bhuju, W. Oehlmann, M. Singh, M. Skold, L. Ignatowicz, A. Yoshimura, H. Wigzell, et al. (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 26873-26887
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NOD2 Deficiency Results in Increased Susceptibility to Peptidoglycan-Induced Uveitis in Mice.
H. L. Rosenzweig, K. Galster, E. E. Vance, J. Ensign-Lewis, G. Nunez, M. P. Davey, and J. T. Rosenbaum (2011)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 4106-4112
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Priming of Protective Anti-Listeria monocytogenes Memory CD8+ T Cells Requires a Functional SecA2 Secretion System.
M. Rahmoun, M. Gros, L. Campisi, D. Bassand, A. Lazzari, C. Massiera, E. Narni-Mancinelli, P. Gounon, and G. Lauvau (2011)
Infect. Immun. 79, 2396-2403
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 1 Mediates Recognition of Clostridium difficile and Induces Neutrophil Recruitment and Protection against the Pathogen.
M. Hasegawa, T. Yamazaki, N. Kamada, K. Tawaratsumida, Y.-G. Kim, G. Nunez, and N. Inohara (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 4872-4880
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Identifies an Impairment of Negative Feedback Signals in the Crohn's Disease-Associated NOD2 Variant L1007fsinsC.
S. Billmann-Born, A. Till, A. Arlt, S. Lipinski, C. Sina, A. Latiano, V. Annese, R. Hasler, M. Kerick, T. Manke, et al. (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 4027-4038
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intestinal epithelial cells as producers but not targets of chronic TNF suffice to cause murine Crohn-like pathology.
M. Roulis, M. Armaka, M. Manoloukos, M. Apostolaki, and G. Kollias (2011)
PNAS 108, 5396-5401
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genome-wide association studies and Crohn's disease.
J. C. Lee and M. Parkes (2011)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 10, 71-76
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Novel Aminosaccharide Compound Blocks Immune Responses by Toll-like Receptors and Nucleotide-binding Domain, Leucine-rich Repeat Proteins.
K.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Liu, A. Biswas, C. Ogawa, and K. S. Kobayashi (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 5727-5735
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LIMP-2 Links Late Phagosomal Trafficking with the Onset of the Innate Immune Response to Listeria monocytogenes: A ROLE IN MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION.
E. Carrasco-Marin, L. Fernandez-Prieto, E. Rodriguez-Del Rio, F. Madrazo-Toca, T. Reinheckel, P. Saftig, and C. Alvarez-Dominguez (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 3332-3341
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Muramyldipeptide augments the actions of lipopolysaccharide in mice by stimulating macrophages to produce pro-IL-1{beta} and by down-regulation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1).
Y. Shikama, T. Kuroishi, Y. Nagai, Y. Iwakura, H. Shimauchi, H. Takada, S. Sugawara, and Y. Endo (2011)
Innate Immunity 17, 3-15
   Abstract »    PDF »
Expression of NOD2 is increased in inflamed human dental pulps and lipoteichoic acid-stimulated odontoblast-like cells.
J.-F. Keller, F. Carrouel, M.-J. Staquet, T. A. Kufer, C. Baudouin, P. Msika, F. Bleicher, and J.-C. Farges (2011)
Innate Immunity 17, 29-34
   Abstract »    PDF »
A Novel Motif in the Crohn's Disease Susceptibility Protein, NOD2, Allows TRAF4 to Down-regulate Innate Immune Responses.
J. M. Marinis, C. R. Homer, C. McDonald, and D. W. Abbott (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 1938-1950
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Strain-Specific Polymorphisms in Paneth Cell {alpha}-Defensins of C57BL/6 Mice and Evidence of Vestigial Myeloid {alpha}-Defensin Pseudogenes.
M. T. Shanahan, H. Tanabe, and A. J. Ouellette (2011)
Infect. Immun. 79, 459-473
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Paradoxical effects of constitutive human IL-32{gamma} in transgenic mice during experimental colitis.
J. Choi, S. Bae, J. Hong, S. Ryoo, H. Jhun, K. Hong, D. Yoon, S. Lee, E. Her, W. Choi, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 21082-21086
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Telling apart friend from foe: discriminating between commensals and pathogens at mucosal sites.
N. Srinivasan (2010)
Innate Immunity 16, 391-404
   Abstract »    PDF »
Synergism of NOD2 and NLRP3 activators promotes a unique transcriptional profile in murine dendritic cells.
C. Conforti-Andreoni, O. Beretta, G. Licandro, H. L. Qian, M. Urbano, F. Vitulli, P. Ricciardi-Castagnoli, and A. Mortellaro (2010)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 88, 1207-1216
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Muramyl Dipeptide Synergizes with Staphylococcus aureus Lipoteichoic Acid To Recruit Neutrophils in the Mammary Gland and To Stimulate Mammary Epithelial Cells.
S. Bougarn, P. Cunha, A. Harmache, A. Fromageau, F. B. Gilbert, and P. Rainard (2010)
Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 17, 1797-1809
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role for Neutrophils in Host Immune Responses and Genetic Factors That Modulate Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Inbred Mouse Strain SPRET/Ei.
L. Dejager, I. Pinheiro, P. Bogaert, L. Huys, and C. Libert (2010)
Infect. Immun. 78, 3848-3860
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders: what to recommend?.
E. C. Verna and S. Lucak (2010)
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 3, 307-319
   Abstract »    PDF »
Induction and rescue of Nod2-dependent Th1-driven granulomatous inflammation of the ileum.
A. Biswas, Y.-J. Liu, L. Hao, A. Mizoguchi, N. H. Salzman, C. L. Bevins, and K. S. Kobayashi (2010)
PNAS 107, 14739-14744
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An innately dangerous balancing act: intestinal homeostasis, inflammation, and colitis-associated cancer.
M. Asquith and F. Powrie (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 1573-1577
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential roles for NOD2 in osteoblast inflammatory immune responses to bacterial pathogens of bone tissue.
V. S. Chauhan and I. Marriott (2010)
J. Med. Microbiol. 59, 755-762
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of Drosophila Yin and PEPT2 as Evolutionarily Conserved Phagosome-associated Muramyl Dipeptide Transporters.
G. M. Charriere, W. E. Ip, S. Dejardin, L. Boyer, A. Sokolovska, M. P. Cappillino, B. J. Cherayil, D. K. Podolsky, K. S. Kobayashi, N. Silverman, et al. (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 20147-20154
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Caspase Recruitment Domain-containing Protein 8 (CARD8) Negatively Regulates NOD2-mediated Signaling.
O. von Kampen, S. Lipinski, A. Till, S. J. Martin, W. Nietfeld, H. Lehrach, S. Schreiber, and P. Rosenstiel (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 19921-19926
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi by NOD2 Is Central for the Induction of an Inflammatory Reaction.
M. Oosting, A. Berende, P. Sturm, H. J. M. ter Hofstede, D. J. de Jong, T.-D. Kanneganti, J. W. M. van der Meer, B.-J. Kullberg, M. G. Netea, and L. A. B. Joosten (2010)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 201, 1849-1858
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Pathogen Recognition Receptor NOD2 Regulates Human FOXP3+ T Cell Survival.
M. K. Rahman, E. H. Midtling, P. A. Svingen, Y. Xiong, M. P. Bell, J. Tung, T. Smyrk, L. J. Egan, and W. A. Faubion Jr. (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 7247-7256
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TLR9-Dependent Induction of Intestinal {alpha}-Defensins by Toxoplasma gondii.
D. M. Foureau, D. W. Mielcarz, L. C. Menard, J. Schulthess, C. Werts, V. Vasseur, B. Ryffel, L. H. Kasper, and D. Buzoni-Gatel (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 7022-7029
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of innate immune responses by autophagy-related proteins.
T. Saitoh and S. Akira (2010)
J. Cell Biol. 189, 925-935
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Bacillus anthracis Peptidoglycan Requires Phagocytosis and Lysosomal Trafficking.
J. K. Iyer, T. Khurana, M. Langer, C. M. West, J. D. Ballard, J. P. Metcalf, T. J. Merkel, and K. M. Coggeshall (2010)
Infect. Immun. 78, 2418-2428
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ER stress and the unfolded protein response in intestinal inflammation.
M. A. McGuckin, R. D. Eri, I. Das, R. Lourie, and T. H. Florin (2010)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 298, G820-G832
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Persistent Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Downregulates NF-{kappa}B, Resulting in Chronic Intestinal Inflammation in the Min/+ Mouse Model of Colon Tumorigenesis.
A. M. Carothers, J. S. Davids, B. C. Damas, and M. M. Bertagnolli (2010)
Cancer Res. 70, 4433-4442
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insufficient evidence for association of NOD2/CARD15 or other inflammatory bowel disease-associated markers on GVHD incidence or other adverse outcomes in T-replete, unrelated donor transplantation.
Y. Nguyen, A. Al-Lehibi, E. Gorbe, E. Li, M. Haagenson, T. Wang, S. Spellman, S. J. Lee, and N. O. Davidson (2010)
Blood 115, 3625-3631
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Graft-versus-host disease: regulation by microbe-associated molecules and innate immune receptors.
O. Penack, E. Holler, and M. R. M. van den Brink (2010)
Blood 115, 1865-1872
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NOD1 and NOD2 Mediate Sensing of Periodontal Pathogens.
T. Okugawa, T. Kaneko, A. Yoshimura, N. Silverman, and Y. Hara (2010)
Journal of Dental Research 89, 186-191
   Abstract »    PDF »
Genetic Susceptibility Factors in a Cohort of 38 Patients with SAPHO Syndrome: A Study of PSTPIP2, NOD2, and LPIN2 Genes.
J Rheumatol 37, 401-409
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Direct and Indirect Induction by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the NOD2/CARD15-Defensin {beta}2 Innate Immune Pathway Defective in Crohn Disease.
T.-T. Wang, B. Dabbas, D. Laperriere, A. J. Bitton, H. Soualhine, L. E. Tavera-Mendoza, S. Dionne, M. J. Servant, A. Bitton, E. G. Seidman, et al. (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 2227-2231
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
How the Noninflammasome NLRs Function in the Innate Immune System.
J. P. Y. Ting, J. A. Duncan, and Y. Lei (2010)
Science 327, 286-290
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of Adaptive Immunity by the Innate Immune System.
A. Iwasaki and R. Medzhitov (2010)
Science 327, 291-295
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nucleotide Oligomerization Binding Domain-Like Receptor Signaling Enhances Dendritic Cell-Mediated Cross-Priming In Vivo.
J. Asano, H. Tada, N. Onai, T. Sato, Y. Horie, Y. Fujimoto, K. Fukase, A. Suzuki, T. W. Mak, and T. Ohteki (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 736-745
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882