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Science 307 (5710): 731-734

Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Nod2-Dependent Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in the Intestinal Tract

Koichi S. Kobayashi,1* Mathias Chamaillard,3,4 Yasunori Ogura,1 Octavian Henegariu,1 Naohiro Inohara,3 Gabriel Nuñez,3,4{dagger} Richard A. Flavell1,2{dagger}{ddagger}

Abstract: The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive. Here we show that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod2-deficient mice. These animals are susceptible to bacterial infection via the oral route but not through intravenous or peritoneal delivery. Nod2 is required for the expression of a subgroup of intestinal anti-microbial peptides, known as cryptdins. The Nod2 protein is thus a critical regulator of bacterial immunity within the intestine, providing a possible mechanism for Nod2 mutations in CD.

1 Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
2 The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
3 Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
4 Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

* Present address: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

{dagger} These authors contributed equally to this work.

{ddagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: richard.flavell{at}yale.edu


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Persistent Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Downregulates NF-{kappa}B, Resulting in Chronic Intestinal Inflammation in the Min/+ Mouse Model of Colon Tumorigenesis.
A. M. Carothers, J. S. Davids, B. C. Damas, and M. M. Bertagnolli (2010)
Cancer Res. 70, 4433-4442
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Insufficient evidence for association of NOD2/CARD15 or other inflammatory bowel disease-associated markers on GVHD incidence or other adverse outcomes in T-replete, unrelated donor transplantation.
Y. Nguyen, A. Al-Lehibi, E. Gorbe, E. Li, M. Haagenson, T. Wang, S. Spellman, S. J. Lee, and N. O. Davidson (2010)
Blood 115, 3625-3631
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Graft-versus-host disease: regulation by microbe-associated molecules and innate immune receptors.
O. Penack, E. Holler, and M. R. M. van den Brink (2010)
Blood 115, 1865-1872
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NOD1 and NOD2 Mediate Sensing of Periodontal Pathogens.
T. Okugawa, T. Kaneko, A. Yoshimura, N. Silverman, and Y. Hara (2010)
Journal of Dental Research 89, 186-191
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Genetic Susceptibility Factors in a Cohort of 38 Patients with SAPHO Syndrome: A Study of PSTPIP2, NOD2, and LPIN2 Genes.
M. HURTADO-NEDELEC, S. CHOLLET-MARTIN, D. CHAPETON, J.-P. HUGOT, G. HAYEM, and B. GERARD (2010)
J Rheumatol 37, 401-409
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Direct and Indirect Induction by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the NOD2/CARD15-Defensin {beta}2 Innate Immune Pathway Defective in Crohn Disease.
T.-T. Wang, B. Dabbas, D. Laperriere, A. J. Bitton, H. Soualhine, L. E. Tavera-Mendoza, S. Dionne, M. J. Servant, A. Bitton, E. G. Seidman, et al. (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 2227-2231
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How the Noninflammasome NLRs Function in the Innate Immune System.
J. P. Y. Ting, J. A. Duncan, and Y. Lei (2010)
Science 327, 286-290
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Regulation of Adaptive Immunity by the Innate Immune System.
A. Iwasaki and R. Medzhitov (2010)
Science 327, 291-295
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Nucleotide Oligomerization Binding Domain-Like Receptor Signaling Enhances Dendritic Cell-Mediated Cross-Priming In Vivo.
J. Asano, H. Tada, N. Onai, T. Sato, Y. Horie, Y. Fujimoto, K. Fukase, A. Suzuki, T. W. Mak, and T. Ohteki (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 736-745
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