Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 308 (5718): 83-88

Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Postsynaptic Receptor Trafficking Underlying a Form of Associative Learning

Simon Rumpel,1 Joseph LeDoux,2 Anthony Zador,1 Roberto Malinow1*

Abstract: To elucidate molecular, cellular, and circuit changes that occur in the brain during learning, we investigated the role of a glutamate receptor subtype in fear conditioning. In this form of learning, animals associate two stimuli, such as a tone and a shock. Here we report that fear conditioning drives AMPA-type glutamate receptors into the synapse of a large fraction of postsynaptic neurons in the lateral amygdala, a brain structure essential for this learning process. Furthermore, memory was reduced if AMPA receptor synaptic incorporation was blocked in as few as 10 to 20% of lateral amygdala neurons. Thus, the encoding of memories in the lateral amygdala is mediated by AMPA receptor trafficking, is widely distributed, and displays little redundancy.

1 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.
2 New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: malinow{at}

Decreased Anxiety-Like Behavior and G{alpha}q/11-Dependent Responses in the Amygdala of Mice Lacking TRPC4 Channels.
A. Riccio, Y. Li, E. Tsvetkov, S. Gapon, G. L. Yao, K. S. Smith, E. Engin, U. Rudolph, V. Y. Bolshakov, and D. E. Clapham (2014)
J. Neurosci. 34, 3653-3667
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Learning enhances intrinsic excitability in a subset of lateral amygdala neurons.
M. Sehgal, V. L. Ehlers, and J. R. Moyer Jr. (2014)
Learn. Mem. 21, 161-170
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pharmacological rescue of Ras signaling, GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits in a fragile X model.
C.-S. Lim, E. T. Hoang, K. E. Viar, R. L. Stornetta, M. M. Scott, and J. J. Zhu (2014)
Genes & Dev. 28, 273-289
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The developmental stages of synaptic plasticity.
C. Lohmann and H. W. Kessels (2014)
J. Physiol. 592, 13-31
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Altered Structural and Functional Synaptic Plasticity with Motor Skill Learning in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.
R. Padmashri, B. C. Reiner, A. Suresh, E. Spartz, and A. Dunaevsky (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 19715-19723
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional MRI of long-term potentiation: imaging network plasticity.
E. Alvarez-Salvado, V. Pallares, A. Moreno, and S. Canals (2013)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130152
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lack of the presynaptic RhoGAP protein oligophrenin1 leads to cognitive disabilities through dysregulation of the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway.
M. Khelfaoui, F. Gambino, X. Houbaert, B. Ragazzon, C. Muller, M. Carta, F. Lanore, B. N. Srikumar, P. Gastrein, M. Lepleux, et al. (2013)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130160
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis: encoding, storage and persistence.
T. Takeuchi, A. J. Duszkiewicz, and R. G. M. Morris (2013)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Assignment of Model Amygdala Neurons to the Fear Memory Trace Depends on Competitive Synaptic Interactions.
D. Kim, D. Pare, and S. S. Nair (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 14354-14358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
{beta}CaMKII in Lateral Habenula Mediates Core Symptoms of Depression.
K. Li, T. Zhou, L. Liao, Z. Yang, C. Wong, F. Henn, R. Malinow, J. R. Yates III, and H. Hu (2013)
Science 341, 1016-1020
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Target-Specific Vulnerability of Excitatory Synapses Leads to Deficits in Associative Memory in a Model of Intellectual Disorder.
X. Houbaert, C.-L. Zhang, F. Gambino, M. Lepleux, M. Deshors, E. Normand, F. Levet, M. Ramos, P. Billuart, J. Chelly, et al. (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 13805-13819
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms contributing to the induction and storage of Pavlovian fear memories in the lateral amygdala.
D. Kim, D. Pare, and S. S. Nair (2013)
Learn. Mem. 20, 421-430
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Norepinephrine Enhances a Discrete Form of Long-Term Depression during Fear Memory Storage.
R. L. Clem and R. L. Huganir (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 11825-11832
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The beneficial effects of leptin on REM sleep deprivation-induced cognitive deficits in mice.
H.-F. Chang, C.-L. Su, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Chen, and P.-W. Gean (2013)
Learn. Mem. 20, 328-335
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex: partners in the fear circuit.
R. Marek, C. Strobel, T. W. Bredy, and P. Sah (2013)
J. Physiol. 591, 2381-2391
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AMPA receptor exchange underlies transient memory destabilization on retrieval.
I. Hong, J. Kim, J. Kim, S. Lee, H.-G. Ko, K. Nader, B.-K. Kaang, R. W. Tsien, and S. Choi (2013)
PNAS 110, 8218-8223
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sucrose Ingestion Induces Rapid AMPA Receptor Trafficking.
D. S. Tukey, J. M. Ferreira, S. O. Antoine, J. A. D'amour, I. Ninan, S. Cabeza de Vaca, S. Incontro, C. Wincott, J. K. Horwitz, D. T. Hartner, et al. (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 6123-6132
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Switching off LTP: mGlu and NMDA Receptor-Dependent Novelty Exploration-Induced Depotentiation in the Rat Hippocampus.
Y. Qi, N.-W. Hu, and M. J. Rowan (2013)
Cereb Cortex 23, 932-939
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms.
Y. Li, E. G. Meloni, W. A. Carlezon Jr., M. R. Milad, R. K. Pitman, K. Nader, and V. Y. Bolshakov (2013)
PNAS 110, 4798-4803
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Central Amygdala GluA1 Facilitates Associative Learning of Opioid Reward.
Y.-Q. Cai, W. Wang, Y.-Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, J. Xie, and Z. Z. Pan (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 1577-1588
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Actin Polymerization-Dependent Increase in Synaptic Arc/Arg3.1 Expression in the Amygdala Is Crucial for the Expression of Aversive Memory Associated with Drug Withdrawal.
Y. Liu, Q.-X. Zhou, Y.-Y. Hou, B. Lu, C. Yu, J. Chen, Q.-L. Ling, J. Cao, Z.-Q. Chi, L. Xu, et al. (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 12005-12017
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arf6-GEF BRAG1 Regulates JNK-Mediated Synaptic Removal of GluA1-Containing AMPA Receptors: A New Mechanism for Nonsyndromic X-Linked Mental Disorder.
K. R. Myers, G. Wang, Y. Sheng, K. K. Conger, J. E. Casanova, and J. J. Zhu (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 11716-11726
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Trace fear conditioning enhances synaptic and intrinsic plasticity in rat hippocampus.
C. Song, J. A. Detert, M. Sehgal, and J. R. Moyer Jr. (2012)
J Neurophysiol 107, 3397-3408
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Metaplasticity-Like Mechanism Supports the Selection of Fear Memories: Role of Protein Kinase A in the Amygdala.
R. G. Parsons and M. Davis (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 7843-7851
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synapses and Memory Storage.
M. Mayford, S. A. Siegelbaum, and E. R. Kandel (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a005751
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Combined {beta}-adrenergic and corticosteroid receptor activation regulates AMPA receptor function in hippocampal neurons.
M. Zhou, C. C. Hoogenraad, M. Joels, and H. J. Krugers (2012)
J Psychopharmacol 26, 516-524
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Postsynaptic BDNF signalling regulates long-term potentiation at thalamo-amygdala afferents.
S. Meis, T. Endres, and V. Lessmann (2012)
J. Physiol. 590, 193-208
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanism for long-term memory formation when synaptic strengthening is impaired.
K. Radwanska, N. I. Medvedev, G. S. Pereira, O. Engmann, N. Thiede, M. F. D. Moraes, A. Villers, E. E. Irvine, N. S. Maunganidze, E. M. Pyza, et al. (2011)
PNAS 108, 18471-18475
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inhibition to excitation ratio regulates visual system responses and behavior in vivo.
W. Shen, C. R. McKeown, J. A. Demas, and H. T. Cline (2011)
J Neurophysiol 106, 2285-2302
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Translocation of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential-like (TRPL) Channel Requires Both the N- and C-terminal Regions Together with Sustained Ca2+ Entry.
D. Richter, B. Katz, T. Oberacker, V. Tzarfaty, G. Belusic, B. Minke, and A. Huber (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 34234-34243
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt Signaling in Amygdala-Dependent Learning and Memory.
K. A. Maguschak and K. J. Ressler (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 13057-13067
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Contextual learning requires synaptic AMPA receptor delivery in the hippocampus.
D. Mitsushima, K. Ishihara, A. Sano, H. W. Kessels, and T. Takahashi (2011)
PNAS 108, 12503-12508
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Activity-Regulated Cytoskeletal-Associated Protein (Arc/Arg3.1) Is Required for Reconsolidation of a Pavlovian Fear Memory.
S. A. Maddox and G. E. Schafe (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 7073-7082
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impairment of Fear Memory Consolidation in Maternally Stressed Male Mouse Offspring: Evidence for Nongenomic Glucocorticoid Action on the Amygdala.
E. J. Lee, G. H. Son, S. Chung, S. Lee, J. Kim, S. Choi, and K. Kim (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 7131-7140
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Odor preference learning and memory modify GluA1 phosphorylation and GluA1 distribution in the neonate rat olfactory bulb: Testing the AMPA receptor hypothesis in an appetitive learning model.
W. Cui, A. Darby-King, M. T. Grimes, J. G. Howland, Y. T. Wang, J. H. McLean, and C. W. Harley (2011)
Learn. Mem. 18, 283-291
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Input-Specific Critical Periods for Experience-Dependent Plasticity in Layer 2/3 Pyramidal Neurons.
J. A. Wen and A. L. Barth (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 4456-4465
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ras and Rap Signaling in Synaptic Plasticity and Mental Disorders.
R. L. Stornetta and J. J. Zhu (2011)
Neuroscientist 17, 54-78
   Abstract »    PDF »
Visual Experience Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Primary Visual Cortex.
S. F. Cooke and M. F. Bear (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 16304-16313
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interaction between N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor and GluR2 Is Essential for Fear Memory Formation in Lateral Amygdala.
G. Joels and R. Lamprecht (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 15981-15986
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptor Dynamics Mediate Fear Memory Erasure.
R. L. Clem and R. L. Huganir (2010)
Science 330, 1108-1112
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Specific Class of Interneuron Mediates Inhibitory Plasticity in the Lateral Amygdala.
J. S. Polepalli, R. K. P. Sullivan, Y. Yanagawa, and P. Sah (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 14619-14629
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hierarchical order of coexisting pre- and postsynaptic forms of long-term potentiation at synapses in amygdala.
R.-M. Shin, K. Tully, Y. Li, J.-H. Cho, M. Higuchi, T. Suhara, and V. Y. Bolshakov (2010)
PNAS 107, 19073-19078
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hippocampal long-term depression is required for the consolidation of spatial memory.
Y. Ge, Z. Dong, R. C. Bagot, J. G. Howland, A. G. Phillips, T. P. Wong, and Y. T. Wang (2010)
PNAS 107, 16697-16702
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Discriminative Auditory Fear Learning Requires Both Tuned and Nontuned Auditory Pathways to the Amygdala.
R. Antunes and M. A. Moita (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 9782-9787
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Homeostatic Switch in Hebbian Plasticity and Fear Learning after Sustained Loss of Cav1.2 Calcium Channels.
N. Langwieser, C. J. Christel, T. Kleppisch, F. Hofmann, C. T. Wotjak, and S. Moosmang (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 8367-8375
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of pre- and postsynaptic activity in thalamocortical axon branching.
A. Yamada, N. Uesaka, Y. Hayano, T. Tabata, M. Kano, and N. Yamamoto (2010)
PNAS 107, 7562-7567
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plastic Synaptic Networks of the Amygdala for the Acquisition, Expression, and Extinction of Conditioned Fear.
H. C. Pape and D. Pare (2010)
Physiol Rev 90, 419-463
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Input-specific synaptic plasticity in the amygdala is regulated by neuroligin-1 via postsynaptic NMDA receptors.
S.-Y. Jung, J. Kim, O. B. Kwon, J. H. Jung, K. An, A. Y. Jeong, C. J. Lee, Y.-B. Choi, C. H. Bailey, E. R. Kandel, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 4710-4715
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Excitatory amino acid involvement in dendritic spine formation, maintenance and remodelling.
R. A. McKinney (2010)
J. Physiol. 588, 107-116
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular and Cellular Approaches to Memory Allocation in Neural Circuits.
A. J. Silva, Y. Zhou, T. Rogerson, J. Shobe, and J. Balaji (2009)
Science 326, 391-395
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A discrete population of neurons in the lateral amygdala is specifically activated by contextual fear conditioning.
Y. M. Wilson and M. Murphy (2009)
Learn. Mem. 16, 357-361
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Extinction-Reconsolidation Boundaries: Key to Persistent Attenuation of Fear Memories.
M.-H. Monfils, K. K. Cowansage, E. Klann, and J. E. LeDoux (2009)
Science 324, 951-955
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activity Level-Dependent Synapse-Specific AMPA Receptor Trafficking Regulates Transmission Kinetics.
J. J. Zhu (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 6320-6335
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bidirectional synaptic mechanisms of ocular dominance plasticity in visual cortex.
G. B Smith, A. J Heynen, and M. F Bear (2009)
Phil Trans R Soc B 364, 357-367
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hippocampal and extrahippocampal systems compete for control of contextual fear: Role of ventral subiculum and amygdala.
J. C. Biedenkapp and J. W. Rudy (2008)
Learn. Mem. 16, 38-45
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Activity-Regulated Cytoskeletal-Associated Protein (Arc/Arg3.1) Is Required for Memory Consolidation of Pavlovian Fear Conditioning in the Lateral Amygdala.
J. E. Ploski, V. J. Pierre, J. Smucny, K. Park, M. S. Monsey, K. A. Overeem, and G. E. Schafe (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 12383-12395
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
cAMP/PKA signaling and RIM1{alpha} mediate presynaptic LTP in the lateral amygdala.
E. Fourcaudot, F. Gambino, Y. Humeau, G. Casassus, H. Shaban, B. Poulain, and A. Luthi (2008)
PNAS 105, 15130-15135
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rapid enhancement of two-step wiring plasticity by estrogen and NMDA receptor activity.
D. P. Srivastava, K. M. Woolfrey, K. A. Jones, C. Y. Shum, L. L. Lash, G. T. Swanson, and P. Penzes (2008)
PNAS 105, 14650-14655
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ras Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Impaired GluR1-Dependent Plasticity Associated with Fragile X Syndrome.
H. Hu, Y. Qin, G. Bochorishvili, Y. Zhu, L. van Aelst, and J. J. Zhu (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 7847-7862
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Amplifications of Neuropathic Pain in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.
H. Xu, L.-J. Wu, H. Wang, X. Zhang, K. I. Vadakkan, S. S. Kim, H. W. Steenland, and M. Zhuo (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 7445-7453
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The regulation of dendritic arbor development and plasticity by glutamatergic synaptic input: a review of the synaptotrophic hypothesis.
H. Cline and K. Haas (2008)
J. Physiol. 586, 1509-1517
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Enhanced Cortico-Amygdala Efficacy and Suppressed Fear in Absence of Rap1.
B.-X. Pan, F. Vautier, W. Ito, V. Y. Bolshakov, and A. Morozov (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 2089-2098
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spine-Type-Specific Recruitment of Newly Synthesized AMPA Receptors with Learning.
N. Matsuo, L. Reijmers, and M. Mayford (2008)
Science 319, 1104-1107
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
D1 but not D5 Dopamine Receptors Are Critical for LTP, Spatial Learning, and LTP-Induced arc and zif268 Expression in the Hippocampus.
N. Granado, O. Ortiz, L. M. Suarez, E. D. Martin, V. Cena, J. M. Solis, and R. Moratalla (2008)
Cereb Cortex 18, 1-12
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amygdala depotentiation and fear extinction.
J. Kim, S. Lee, K. Park, I. Hong, B. Song, G. Son, H. Park, W. R. Kim, E. Park, H. K. Choe, et al. (2007)
PNAS 104, 20955-20960
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential Trafficking of AMPA and NMDA Receptors during Long-Term Potentiation in Awake Adult Animals.
J. M. Williams, D. Guevremont, S. E. Mason-Parker, C. Luxmanan, W. P. Tate, and W. C. Abraham (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 14171-14178
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GluR1 Links Structural and Functional Plasticity at Excitatory Synapses.
C. D. Kopec, E. Real, H. W. Kessels, and R. Malinow (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 13706-13718
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Pathway-Specific Function for Different AMPA Receptor Subunits in Amygdala Long-Term Potentiation and Fear Conditioning.
Y. Humeau, D. Reisel, A. W. Johnson, T. Borchardt, V. Jensen, C. Gebhardt, V. Bosch, P. Gass, D. M. Bannerman, M. A. Good, et al. (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 10947-10956
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Real-Time Imaging of Discrete Exocytic Events Mediating Surface Delivery of AMPA Receptors.
G. A. Yudowski, M. A. Puthenveedu, D. Leonoudakis, S. Panicker, K. S. Thorn, E. C. Beattie, and M. von Zastrow (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 11112-11121
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Brain Plasticity Mechanisms and Memory: A Party of Four.
E. Bruel-Jungerman, S. Davis, and S. Laroche (2007)
Neuroscientist 13, 492-505
   Abstract »    PDF »
The extracellular protease matrix metalloproteinase-9 is activated by inhibitory avoidance learning and required for long-term memory.
V. Nagy, O. Bozdagi, and G. W. Huntley (2007)
Learn. Mem. 14, 655-664
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Conversion of Silent Synapses Into the Active Pool by Selective GluR1-3 and GluR4 AMPAR Trafficking During In Vitro Classical Conditioning.
M. Mokin, Z. Zheng, and J. Keifer (2007)
J Neurophysiol 98, 1278-1286
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Norepinephrine enables the induction of associative long-term potentiation at thalamo-amygdala synapses.
K. Tully, Y. Li, E. Tsvetkov, and V. Y. Bolshakov (2007)
PNAS 104, 14146-14150
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multiple Modes of Synaptic Excitation of Olfactory Bulb Granule Cells.
R. Balu, R. T. Pressler, and B. W. Strowbridge (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 5621-5632
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Learning-Induced Enduring Changes in Functional Connectivity among Prefrontal Cortical Neurons.
E. H. Baeg, Y. B. Kim, J. Kim, J.-W. Ghim, J. J. Kim, and M. W. Jung (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 909-918
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Blocking memory reconsolidation reverses memory-associated changes in glutamate receptor expression..
J. K. Rose and C. H. Rankin (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 11582-11587
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Remodeling the plasticity debate: the presynaptic locus revisited..
S. Krueger and R. M. Fitzsimonds (2006)
Physiology 21, 346-351
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Two mutations preventing PDZ-protein interactions of GluR1 have opposite effects on synaptic plasticity.
J. Boehm, I. Ehrlich, H. Hsieh, and R. Malinow (2006)
Learn. Mem. 13, 562-565
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Extinction Training in Conjunction with a Partial Agonist of the Glycine Site on the NMDA Receptor Erases Memory Trace..
S.-C. Mao, Y.-H. Hsiao, and P.-W. Gean (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 8892-8899
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AMPA receptors regulate experience-dependent dendritic arbor growth in vivo.
K. Haas, J. Li, and H. T. Cline (2006)
PNAS 103, 12127-12131
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Homeostatic shutdown of long-term potentiation in the adult hippocampus.
C. Roth-Alpermann, R. G. M. Morris, M. Korte, and T. Bonhoeffer (2006)
PNAS 103, 11039-11044
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Cellular Mechanisms of Learning in Aplysia: Of Blind Men and Elephants.
D. L. Glanzman (2006)
Biol. Bull. 210, 271-279
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Combinatorial chromatin modifications and memory storage: A code for memory?.
M. A. Wood, J. D. Hawk, and T. Abel (2006)
Learn. Mem. 13, 241-244
   Full Text »    PDF »
Multiple Routes for Glutamate Receptor Trafficking: Surface Diffusion and Membrane Traffic Cooperate to Bring Receptors to Synapses.
L. Cognet, L. Groc, B. Lounis, and D. Choquet (2006)
Sci. STKE 2006, pe13
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glutamate Receptor Exocytosis and Spine Enlargement during Chemically Induced Long-Term Potentiation.
C. D. Kopec, B. Li, W. Wei, J. Boehm, and R. Malinow (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 2000-2009
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immunity and behavior: Antibodies alter emotion.
P. T. Huerta, C. Kowal, L. A. DeGiorgio, B. T. Volpe, and B. Diamond (2006)
PNAS 103, 678-683
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The dosage of the neuroD2 transcription factor regulates amygdala development and emotional learning.
C.-H. Lin, S. Hansen, Z. Wang, D. R. Storm, S. J. Tapscott, and J. M. Olson (2005)
PNAS 102, 14877-14882
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Perspectives on Neuroscience and Behavior.
Neuroscientist 11, 397-398
   PDF »
State-dependent Ras signaling and AMPA receptor trafficking.
Y. Qin, Y. Zhu, J. P. Baumgart, R. L. Stornetta, K. Seidenman, V. Mack, L. van Aelst, and J. J. Zhu (2005)
Genes & Dev. 19, 2000-2015
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Neuroscientist Comments.
Neuroscientist 11, 267-268
   PDF »
Synaptic Facilitation and Behavioral Dishabituation in Aplysia: Dependence on Release of Ca2+ from Postsynaptic Intracellular Stores, Postsynaptic Exocytosis, and Modulation of Postsynaptic AMPA Receptor Efficacy.
Q. Li, A. C. Roberts, and D. L. Glanzman (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 5623-5637
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882