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Science 308 (5728): 1583-1587

Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Molecular and Cellular Basis of Cardiovascular Gender Differences

Michael E. Mendelsohn*, and Richard H. Karas

Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the major cause of morbidity and mortality for both men and women, occur uncommonly in premenopausal women, but their incidence rises sharply after the menopausal transition. Cardiovascular gender differences are apparent long before CVDs appear in men and women, and improved understanding of the biology underlying these differences has the potential to advance the diagnosis and treatment of CVDs in both sexes. This review considers gender differences in the molecular and cellular physiology of the heart and blood vessels in health and disease, highlighting understudied areas that can help resolve the current controversy regarding hormone replacement therapy and improve cardiovascular health in women.

Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Department of Medicine, and Division of Cardiology, New England Medical Center Hospitals and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts–New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, 750 Washington Street, Box 80, Boston, MA 02111, USA. E-mail: mmendelsohn{at}

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Blood 109, 1962-1970
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Hypertensive Cardiac Remodeling in Males and Females: From the Bench to the Bedside.
C. F. Deschepper and B. Llamas (2007)
Hypertension 49, 401-407
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The glomerular filtration rate in an apparently healthy population and its relation with cardiovascular mortality during 10 years.
W. Van Biesen, D. De Bacquer, F. Verbeke, J. Delanghe, N. Lameire, and R. Vanholder (2007)
Eur. Heart J. 28, 478-483
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