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Science 308 (5728): 1592-1594

Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Latest Advances in Understanding Preeclampsia

Christopher W. Redman*, and Ian L. Sargent

Abstract: Preeclampsia is a relatively common pregnancy disorder that originates in the placenta and causes variable maternal and fetal problems. In the worst cases, it may threaten the survival of both mother and baby. We summarize recent work on the causes of preeclampsia, which reveals a new mode of maternal immune recognition of the fetus, relevant to the condition. The circulating factors derived from the placenta, which contributes to the clinical syndrome, are now better understood. This brief review on preeclampsia does not cover all aspects of this intriguing condition but focuses on some new and interesting findings.

Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: christopher.redman{at}

Glucocorticoids Sensitize Rat Placental Inflammatory Responses via Inhibiting Lipoxin A4 Biosynthesis.
D. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Peng, H. Liu, Q. Cheng, X. Cheng, P. Zeng, P. Wu, H. Chen, Y. Huang, et al. (2014)
Biol Reprod 90, 74
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular disease.
C. W. Chen, I. Z. Jaffe, and S. A. Karumanchi (2014)
Cardiovasc Res 101, 579-586
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Involvement of galectin-1 in reproduction: past, present and future.
G. Barrientos, N. Freitag, I. Tirado-Gonzalez, L. Unverdorben, U. Jeschke, V. L. J. L. Thijssen, and S. M. Blois (2014)
Hum. Reprod. Update 20, 175-193
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fetal-maternal communication: the role of Notch signalling in embryo implantation.
C. Cuman, E. Menkhorst, A. Winship, M. Van Sinderen, T. Osianlis, L. J. Rombauts, and E. Dimitriadis (2014)
Reproduction 147, R75-R86
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Carbon Monoxide Promotes Proliferation of Uterine Natural Killer Cells and Remodeling of Spiral Arteries in Pregnant Hypertensive Heme Oxygenase-1 Mutant Mice.
N. Linzke, A. Schumacher, K. Woidacki, B. A. Croy, and A. C. Zenclussen (2014)
Hypertension 63, 580-588
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Association between urinary angiotensinogen, hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women with preeclampsia.
Z. Yilmaz, T. Yildirim, R. Yilmaz, A. Aybal-Kutlugun, B. Altun, T. Kucukozkan, and Y. Erdem (2014)
Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
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Tissue Transglutaminase Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia and Stabilizes Placental Angiotensin Receptor Type 1 by Ubiquitination-Preventing Isopeptide Modification.
C. Liu, W. Wang, N. Parchim, R. A. Irani, S. C. Blackwell, B. Sibai, J. Jin, R. E. Kellems, and Y. Xia (2014)
Hypertension 63, 353-361
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Cigarette Smoke-Induced Placental Adrenomedullin Expression and Trophoblast Cell Invasion.
D. M. Kraus, L. Feng, R. P. Heine, H. L. Brown, K. M. Caron, A. P. Murtha, and C. A. Grotegut (2014)
Reproductive Sciences 21, 63-71
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Effects of Pravastatin on Angiogenic and Placental Hypoxic Imbalance in a Mouse Model of Preeclampsia.
A. F. Saad, T. Kechichian, H. Yin, E. Sbrana, M. Longo, M. Wen, E. Tamayo, G. D. V. Hankins, G. R. Saade, and M. M. Costantine (2014)
Reproductive Sciences 21, 138-145
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First-Trimester Levels of Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A2 (PAPP-A2) in the Maternal Circulation Are Elevated in Pregnancies That Subsequently Develop Preeclampsia.
E. J. Crosley, U. Durland, K. Seethram, S. MacRae, A. Gruslin, and J. K. Christians (2013)
Reproductive Sciences
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Associations of Personal and Family Preeclampsia History With the Risk of Early-, Intermediate- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia.
H. A. Boyd, H. Tahir, J. Wohlfahrt, and M. Melbye (2013)
Am. J. Epidemiol. 178, 1611-1619
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Gestational Modification of Murine Spiral Arteries Does Not Reduce Their Drug-Induced Vasoconstrictive Responses In Vivo.
S. Leonard, P. D. A. Lima, B. A. Croy, and C. L. Murrant (2013)
Biol Reprod 89, 139
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Spiral Artery Remodeling and Trophoblast Invasion in Preeclampsia and Fetal Growth Restriction: Relationship to Clinical Outcome.
F. Lyall, S. C. Robson, and J. N. Bulmer (2013)
Hypertension 62, 1046-1054
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Role of LIN28A in Mouse and Human Trophoblast Cell Differentiation.
J. L. Seabrook, J. D. Cantlon, A. J. Cooney, E. E. McWhorter, B. A. Fromme, G. J. Bouma, R. V. Anthony, and Q. A. Winger (2013)
Biol Reprod 89, 95
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High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study.
J. Tooher, C. L. Chiu, K. Yeung, S. J. Lupton, C. Thornton, A. Makris, A. O'Loughlin, A. Hennessy, and J. M. Lind (2013)
BMJ Open 3, e002964
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Interfering with Gal-1-mediated angiogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
N. Freitag, I. Tirado-Gonzalez, G. Barrientos, F. Herse, V. L. J. L. Thijssen, S. M. Weedon-Fekjaer, H. Schulz, G. Wallukat, B. F. Klapp, T. Nevers, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 11451-11456
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Sulfane Sustains Vascular Health: Insights Into Cystathionine {gamma}-Lyase Function.
S. C. Bir and C. G. Kevil (2013)
Circulation 127, 2472-2474
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Human Placental MicroRNAs and Preeclampsia.
D.-b. Chen and W. Wang (2013)
Biol Reprod 88, 130
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Pre-eclampsia or chronic kidney disease? The flow hypothesis.
G. B. Piccoli, P. Gaglioti, R. Attini, S. Parisi, C. Bossotti, E. Olearo, M. Oberto, M. Ferraresi, A. Rolfo, E. Versino, et al. (2013)
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 28, 1199-1206
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The c-Myc-Regulated MicroRNA-17~92 (miR-17~92) and miR-106a~363 Clusters Target hCYP19A1 and hGCM1 To Inhibit Human Trophoblast Differentiation.
P. Kumar, Y. Luo, C. Tudela, J. M. Alexander, and C. R. Mendelson (2013)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 33, 1782-1796
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Corin, an enzyme with a putative role in spiral artery remodeling, is up-regulated in late secretory endometrium and first trimester decidua.
T. J. Kaitu'u-Lino, L. Ye, L. Tuohey, E. Dimitriadis, J. Bulmer, P. Rogers, E. Menkhorst, M. Van Sinderen, J. E. Girling, N. Hannan, et al. (2013)
Hum. Reprod. 28, 1172-1180
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Redefining Preeclampsia Using Placenta-Derived Biomarkers.
A. C. Staff, S. J. Benton, P. von Dadelszen, J. M. Roberts, R. N. Taylor, R. W. Powers, D. S. Charnock-Jones, and C. W. G. Redman (2013)
Hypertension 61, 932-942
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Increased Arterial Stiffness in Pre-eclamptic Pregnancy at Term and Early and Late Postpartum: A Combined Echocardiographic and Tonometric Study.
M.-E. Estensen, E. W. Remme, G. Grindheim, O. A. Smiseth, P. Segers, T. Henriksen, and S. Aakhus (2013)
Am J Hypertens 26, 549-556
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Role of impaired endothelial cell Ca2+ signaling in uteroplacental vascular dysfunction during diabetic rat pregnancy.
N. I. Gokina, A. D. Bonev, A. P. Gokin, and G. Goloman (2013)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 304, H935-H945
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The maternal HLA-G 1597{Delta}C null mutation is associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia and reduced HLA-G expression during pregnancy in African-American women.
D. A. Loisel, C. Billstrand, K. Murray, K. Patterson, T. Chaiworapongsa, R. Romero, and C. Ober (2013)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 19, 144-152
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Promoter hypomethylation of TIMP3 is associated with pre-eclampsia in a Chinese population.
Y. Xiang, X. Zhang, Q. Li, J. Xu, X. Zhou, T. Wang, Q. Xing, Y. Liu, L. Wang, L. He, et al. (2013)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 19, 153-159
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Increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein causes blood-brain barrier disruption in early-onset preeclampsia through LOX-1.
M. P. H. Schreurs, C. A. Hubel, I. M. Bernstein, A. Jeyabalan, and M. J. Cipolla (2013)
FASEB J 27, 1254-1263
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Multiple Pregnancies in CKD Patients: An Explosive Mix.
G. B. Piccoli, S. Arduino, R. Attini, S. Parisi, F. Fassio, M. Biolcati, A. Pagano, C. Bossotti, E. Vasario, V. Borgarello, et al. (2013)
Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 41-50
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Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Analysis of Podocyturia Is a Feasible Diagnostic Tool in Preeclampsia.
T. P. Kelder, M. E. Penning, H.-W. Uh, D. Cohen, K. W. M. Bloemenkamp, J. A. Bruijn, S. A. Scherjon, and H. J. Baelde (2012)
Hypertension 60, 1538-1544
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Pregnancy complications among women born preterm.
A. Boivin, Z.-C. Luo, F. Audibert, B. Masse, F. Lefebvre, R. Tessier, and A. M. Nuyt (2012)
Can. Med. Assoc. J. 184, 1777-1784
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Angiogenic Factors in Preeclampsia and Related Disorders.
A. S. Cerdeira and S. A. Karumanchi (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2, a006585
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Cardiovascular risk factors in women 10 years post early preeclampsia: the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales study (PREVFEM).
J. T. Drost, G. Arpaci, J. P. Ottervanger, M. J. de Boer, J. van Eyck, Y. T. v. der Schouw, and A. H. Maas (2012)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation 19, 1138-1144
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Silencing or Amplification of Endocannabinoid Signaling in Blastocysts via CB1 Compromises Trophoblast Cell Migration.
H. Xie, X. Sun, Y. Piao, A. G. Jegga, S. Handwerger, M. S. H. Ko, and S. K. Dey (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 32288-32297
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Effects of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-2 Expression on Biological Behavior of BeWo and JEG-3 Cell Lines.
Q. Zhou, Y. Xiong, Y. Chen, Y. Du, J. Zhang, J. Mu, Q. Guo, H. Wang, D. Ma, and X. Li (2012)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 18, 526-533
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Reactive Oxygen Species-Triggered Trophoblast Apoptosis Is Initiated by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress via Activation of Caspase-12, CHOP, and the JNK Pathway in Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice.
X. Xu, T. Liu, A. Zhang, X. Huo, Q. Luo, Z. Chen, L. Yu, Q. Li, L. Liu, Z.-r. Lun, et al. (2012)
Infect. Immun. 80, 2121-2132
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Plasma Clusterin Increased Prior to Small for Gestational Age (SGA) Associated With Preeclampsia and Decreased Prior to SGA in Normotensive Pregnancies.
M. Blumenstein, L. M. E. McCowan, S. Wu, G. J. S. Cooper, R. A. North, and on behalf of the SCOPE consortium (2012)
Reproductive Sciences 19, 650-657
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The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Extract on Trophoblast Cell Viability and Migration: The Role of Adrenomedullin.
T. R. Beiswenger, L. Feng, H. L. Brown, R. P. Heine, A. P. Murtha, and C. A. Grotegut (2012)
Reproductive Sciences 19, 526-533
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In Vitro Evidences of Heparin's Effects on Embryo Implantation and Trophoblast Development.
C. Tersigni, R. Marana, A. Santamaria, R. Castellani, G. Scambia, and N. D. Simone (2012)
Reproductive Sciences 19, 454-462
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The Promise of Angiogenic Markers for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Preeclampsia.
H. Hagmann, R. Thadhani, T. Benzing, S. A. Karumanchi, and H. Stepan (2012)
Clin. Chem. 58, 837-845
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eNOS Deficiency Acts through Endothelin to Aggravate sFlt-1-Induced Pre-Eclampsia-Like Phenotype.
F. Li, J. R. Hagaman, H.-S. Kim, N. Maeda, J. C. Jennette, J. E. Faber, S. A. Karumanchi, O. Smithies, and N. Takahashi (2012)
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 23, 652-660
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Heightened Pro-Inflammatory Effect of Preeclamptic Placental Microvesicles on Peripheral Blood Immune Cells in Humans.
B. S. Holder, C. L. Tower, C. J. P. Jones, J. D. Aplin, and V. M. Abrahams (2012)
Biol Reprod 86, 103
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Human Placental Expression of SLIT/ROBO Signaling Cues: Effects of Preeclampsia and Hypoxia.
W.-X. Liao, L. C. Laurent, S. Agent, J. Hodges, and D.-b. Chen (2012)
Biol Reprod 86, 111
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Endometrial Decidualization Does Not Trigger the Blood Pressure Decline of Normal Early Pregnancy in Mice.
V. F. Barrette, M. A. Adams, and B. A. Croy (2012)
Biol Reprod 86, 66
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Heme Oxygenase Biology (During the Perinatal Period): Part 1: Prenatal Considerations.
S. Schulz, H. Zhao, R. J. Wong, and D. K. Stevenson (2012)
NeoReviews 13, e151-e157
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Effects of Reduced Gcm1 Expression on Trophoblast Morphology, Fetoplacental Vascularity, and Pregnancy Outcomes in Mice.
S. A. Bainbridge, A. Minhas, K. J. Whiteley, D. Qu, J. G. Sled, J. C. P. Kingdom, and S. L. Adamson (2012)
Hypertension 59, 732-739
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Transcriptionally Active Syncytial Aggregates in the Maternal Circulation May Contribute to Circulating Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 in Preeclampsia.
A. Rajakumar, A. S. Cerdeira, S. Rana, Z. Zsengeller, L. Edmunds, A. Jeyabalan, C. A. Hubel, I. E. Stillman, S. M. Parikh, and S. A. Karumanchi (2012)
Hypertension 59, 256-264
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Cardiovascular Biomarker Midregional Proatrial Natriuretic Peptide During and After Preeclamptic Pregnancies.
M. Sugulle, F. Herse, L. Hering, M. Mockel, R. Dechend, and A. C. Staff (2012)
Hypertension 59, 395-401
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L-Arginine supplementation abolishes the blood pressure and endothelin response to chronic increases in plasma sFlt-1 in pregnant rats.
S. R. Murphy, B. LaMarca, K. Cockrell, M. Arany, and J. P. Granger (2012)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 302, R259-R263
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Interplay between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related Factor-2 (Nrf2): IMPLICATIONS FOR PREECLAMPSIA.
N. Kweider, A. Fragoulis, C. Rosen, U. Pecks, W. Rath, T. Pufe, and C. J. Wruck (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 42863-42872
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Maternal/newborn genotype contribution of the renin-angiotensin system (Met235Thr, Thr174Met, I/D-ACE, A2350G-ACE, A1166C-AT2R1, C3123A- AT2R2, 83A/G-REN) to the risk of pre-eclampsia: a Romanian study.
L. M. Procopciuc, G. Caracostea, G. Zaharie, M. Puscas, G. Iordache, M. Popa, D. Colcear, I. Olteanu, and F. Stamatian (2011)
Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 12, 539-548
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Hypertension in pregnancy: the NICE guidelines.
C. W. G. Redman (2011)
Heart 97, 1967-1969
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Is heparin a placental anticoagulant in high-risk pregnancies?.
J. C. P. Kingdom and S. Drewlo (2011)
Blood 118, 4780-4788
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A Model for Preconceptional Prediction of Recurrent Early-Onset Preeclampsia: Derivation and Internal Validation.
S. M. J. v. Kuijk, M.-E. Nijdam, K. J. M. Janssen, S. J. S. Sep, L. L. Peeters, D. H. J. Delahaije, M. Spaanderman, H. W. Bruinse, A. Franx, M. L. Bots, et al. (2011)
Reproductive Sciences 18, 1154-1159
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Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Homeobox Gene DLX4 in JEG-3 Trophoblast Cells: A Role in Preeclampsia.
Y.-Y. Sun, M. Lu, X.-W. Xi, Q.-Q. Qiao, L.-L. Chen, X.-M. Xu, and Y.-J. Feng (2011)
Reproductive Sciences 18, 1138-1145
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Endothelial growth factor therapy improves preeclampsia-like manifestations in a murine model induced by overexpression of sVEGFR-1.
J. Mateus, E. Bytautiene, F. Lu, E. H. Tamayo, A. Betancourt, G. D. V. Hankins, M. Longo, and G. R. Saade (2011)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301, H1781-H1787
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Maternal Heme Oxygenase 1 Regulates Placental Vasculature Development via Angiogenic Factors in Mice.
H. Zhao, J. Azuma, F. Kalish, R. J. Wong, and D. K. Stevenson (2011)
Biol Reprod 85, 1005-1012
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Role of Complement Component C1q in the Onset of Preeclampsia in Mice.
J. Singh, A. Ahmed, and G. Girardi (2011)
Hypertension 58, 716-724
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A survey of acute self-reported infections in pregnancy.
S. J. Lain, C. L. Roberts, J. Warning, J. Vivian-Taylor, and J. B. Ford (2011)
BMJ Open 1, e000083
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Pilot Study of Extracorporeal Removal of Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 in Preeclampsia.
R. Thadhani, T. Kisner, H. Hagmann, V. Bossung, S. Noack, W. Schaarschmidt, A. Jank, A. Kribs, O. A. Cornely, C. Kreyssig, et al. (2011)
Circulation 124, 940-950
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A role for Notch signaling in trophoblast endovascular invasion and in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.
N. M. Hunkapiller, M. Gasperowicz, M. Kapidzic, V. Plaks, E. Maltepe, J. Kitajewski, J. C. Cross, and S. J. Fisher (2011)
Development 138, 2987-2998
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Low Molecular Weight Heparin in Obstetric Care: A Review of the Literature.
S. D'Ippolito, A. S. Ortiz, M. Veglia, C. Tersigni, and N. Di Simone (2011)
Reproductive Sciences 18, 602-613
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Pregnancy-associated homeostasis and dysregulation: lessons from genetically modified animal models.
J. Ishida, T. Matsuoka, T. Saito-Fujita, S. Inaba, S. Kunita, F. Sugiyama, K.-i. Yagami, and A. Fukamizu (2011)
J. Biochem. 150, 5-14
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Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antibodies and Increased Angiotensin II Sensitivity in Pregnant Rats.
K. Wenzel, A. Rajakumar, H. Haase, N. Geusens, N. Hubner, H. Schulz, J. Brewer, L. Roberts, C. A. Hubel, F. Herse, et al. (2011)
Hypertension 58, 77-84
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Preeclampsia, a Disease of the Maternal Endothelium: The Role of Antiangiogenic Factors and Implications for Later Cardiovascular Disease.
C. E. Powe, R. J. Levine, and S. A. Karumanchi (2011)
Circulation 123, 2856-2869
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Association between thyroid autoantibodies and miscarriage and preterm birth: meta-analysis of evidence.
S. Thangaratinam, A. Tan, E. Knox, M. D. Kilby, J. Franklyn, and A. Coomarasamy (2011)
BMJ 342, d2616
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Autoantibody-Mediated IL-6-Dependent Endothelin-1 Elevation Underlies Pathogenesis in a Mouse Model of Preeclampsia.
C. C. Zhou, R. A. Irani, Y. Dai, S. C. Blackwell, M. J. Hicks, S. M. Ramin, R. E. Kellems, and Y. Xia (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 6024-6034
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Analysis of Nitroso-Proteomes in Normotensive and Severe Preeclamptic Human Placentas.
H.-h. Zhang, Y.-p. Wang, and D.-b. Chen (2011)
Biol Reprod 84, 966-975
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Clinical risk prediction for pre-eclampsia in nulliparous women: development of model in international prospective cohort.
R. A. North, L. M. E. McCowan, G. A. Dekker, L. Poston, E. H. Y. Chan, A. W. Stewart, M. A. Black, R. S. Taylor, J. J. Walker, P. N. Baker, et al. (2011)
BMJ 342, d1875
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The monocyte transcriptome during pregnancy in multiple sclerosis: prominent expression of the Fc-receptor CD64.
R. F. Neuteboom, E. Verbraak, A. F. Wierenga-Wolf, J. S. Voerman, M. v. Meurs, S. M. Swagemakers, P. J. v. d. Spek, E. A. Steegers, C. J. d. Groot, J. D. Laman, et al. (2011)
Multiple Sclerosis Journal 17, 389-396
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A Critical Role of Interleukin-10 in Modulating Hypoxia-Induced Preeclampsia-Like Disease in Mice.
Z. Lai, S. Kalkunte, and S. Sharma (2011)
Hypertension 57, 505-514
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Soluble FLT1 sensitizes endothelial cells to inflammatory cytokines by antagonizing VEGF receptor-mediated signalling.
T. Cindrova-Davies, D. A. Sanders, G. J. Burton, and D. S. Charnock-Jones (2011)
Cardiovasc Res 89, 671-679
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Dual-specificity phosphatase 23 mediates GCM1 dephosphorylation and activation.
F.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Chang, M.-L. Cheong, H.-C. Chen, D.-Y. Lee, G.-D. Chang, and H. Chen (2011)
Nucleic Acids Res. 39, 848-861
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Digibind Reverses Inhibition of Cellular Rb+ Uptake Caused by Endogenous Sodium Pump Inhibitors Present in Serum and Placenta of Women with Preeclampsia.
M. L. Hopoate-Sitake, C. D. Adair, L. A. Mason, C. Torres, J. Kipikasa, and S. W. Graves (2011)
Reproductive Sciences 18, 190-199
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Learning From the Placenta: Acute Atherosis and Vascular Remodeling in Preeclampsia-Novel Aspects for Atherosclerosis and Future Cardiovascular Health.
A. C. Staff, R. Dechend, and R. Pijnenborg (2010)
Hypertension 56, 1026-1034
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Interferon gamma contributes to preimplantation embryonic development and to implantation site structure in NOD mice.
A. V. C. Seaward, S. D. Burke, and B. A. Croy (2010)
Hum. Reprod. 25, 2829-2839
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The physiological role of endoglin in the cardiovascular system.
J. M. Lopez-Novoa and C. Bernabeu (2010)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299, H959-H974
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Robust Early Pregnancy Prediction of Later Preeclampsia Using Metabolomic Biomarkers.
L. C. Kenny, D. I. Broadhurst, W. Dunn, M. Brown, R. A. North, L. McCowan, C. Roberts, G. J. S. Cooper, D. B. Kell, P. N. Baker, et al. (2010)
Hypertension 56, 741-749
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An immunological insight into the origins of pre-eclampsia.
E. Laresgoiti-Servitje, N. Gomez-Lopez, and D. M. Olson (2010)
Hum. Reprod. Update 16, 510-524
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Effects of Circulating and Local Uteroplacental Angiotensin II in Rat Pregnancy.
L. Hering, F. Herse, N. Geusens, S. Verlohren, K. Wenzel, A. C. Staff, K. B. Brosnihan, B. Huppertz, F. C. Luft, D. N. Muller, et al. (2010)
Hypertension 56, 311-318
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The STOX1 genotype associated with pre-eclampsia leads to a reduction of trophoblast invasion by {alpha}-T-catenin upregulation.
M. van Dijk, J. van Bezu, D. van Abel, C. Dunk, M. A. Blankenstein, C. B. M. Oudejans, and S. J. Lye (2010)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 19, 2658-2667
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Embryonic stem cells as models of trophoblast differentiation: progress, opportunities, and limitations.
T. G. Golos, M. Giakoumopoulos, and M. A. Garthwaite (2010)
Reproduction 140, 3-9
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Upregulation of Urotensin II Receptor in Preeclampsia Causes In Vitro Placental Release of Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 in Hypoxia.
P. S. Gould, M. Gu, J. Liao, S. Ahmad, M. J. Cudmore, A. Ahmed, and M. Vatish (2010)
Hypertension 56, 172-178
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Activation of AP-1 Transcription Factors Differentiates FGF2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regulation of Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Expression in Placental Artery Endothelial Cells.
E. Mata-Greenwood, W. x. Liao, W. Wang, J. Zheng, and D. b. Chen (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 17348-17358
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Nicotine Suppresses Interleukin-6 Production From Vascular Endothelial Cells: A Possible Therapeutic Role of Nicotine for Preeclampsia.
N. Sharentuya, T. Tomimatsu, K. Mimura, E. Tskitishvili, Y. Kinugasa-Taniguchi, T. Kanagawa, and T. Kimura (2010)
Reproductive Sciences 17, 556-563
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