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Science 308 (5729): 1783-1786

Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Cladosporium Avr2 Inhibits Tomato Rcr3 Protease Required for Cf-2-Dependent Disease Resistance

Henrietta C. E. Rooney,1* John W. van't Klooster,2* Renier A. L. van der Hoorn,2 Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten,2 Jonathan D. G. Jones,1{dagger} Pierre J. G. M. de Wit2{dagger}{ddagger}

Abstract: How plants recognize pathogens and activate defense is still mysterious. Direct interaction between pathogen avirulence (Avr) proteins and plant disease resistance proteins is the exception rather than the rule. During infection, Cladosporium fulvum secretes Avr2 protein into the apoplast of tomato leaves and, in the presence of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like Cf-2 protein, triggers a hypersensitive response (HR) that also requires the extracellular tomato cysteine protease Rcr3. We show here that Avr2 binds and inhibits Rcr3 and propose that the Rcr3-Avr2 complex enables the Cf-2 protein to activate an HR.

1 Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.
2 Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Binnenhaven 5, 6709 PD Wageningen, Netherlands.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} These authors contributed equally to this work.

{ddagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: pierre.dewit{at}

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