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Science 309 (5732): 290-293

Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Stomatal Patterning and Differentiation by Synergistic Interactions of Receptor Kinases

Elena D. Shpak,1,2* Jessica Messmer McAbee,1,2* Lynn Jo Pillitteri,1 Keiko U. Torii1,2{dagger}

Abstract: Coordinated spacing and patterning of stomata allow efficient gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Here we report that three ERECTA (ER)–family leucine-rich repeat–receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) together control stomatal patterning, with specific family members regulating the specification of stomatal stem cell fate and the differentiation of guard cells. Loss-of-function mutations in all three ER-family genes cause stomatal clustering. Genetic interactions with a known stomatal patterning mutant too many mouths (tmm) revealed stoichiometric epistasis and combination-specific neomorphism. Our findings suggest that the negative regulation of ER-family RLKs by TMM, which is an LRR receptor–like protein, is critical for proper stomatal differentiation.

1 Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
2 Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, 332-0012, Japan.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ktorii{at}

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