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Science 312 (5771): 264-266

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

A Bifurcating Pathway Directs Abscisic Acid Effects on Stomatal Closure and Opening in Arabidopsis

Girish Mishra,* Wenhua Zhang,* Fan Deng, Jian Zhao, Xuemin Wang{dagger}

Abstract: Terrestrial plants lose water primarily through stomata, pores on the leaves. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) decreases water loss by regulating opening and closing of stomata. Here, we show that phospholipase D{alpha}1 (PLD{alpha}1) mediates the ABA effects on stomata through interaction with a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein) in Arabidopsis. PLD{alpha}1-produced phosphatidic acid (PA) binds to the ABI1 PP2C to signal ABA-promoted stomatal closure, whereas PLD{alpha}1 and PA interact with the G{alpha} subunit of heterotrimeric G protein to mediate ABA inhibition of stomatal opening. The results reveal a bifurcating signaling pathway that regulates plant water loss.

Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA, and Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO 63132, USA.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: wangxue{at}umsl.edu


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