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Science 312 (5775): 879-882

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Type 1 Interferons and the Virus-Host Relationship: A Lesson in Détente

Adolfo García-Sastre1, and Christine A. Biron2*

Abstract: The interface between an infectious agent and its host represents the ultimate battleground for survival: The microbe must secure a niche for replication, whereas the host must limit the pathogen's advance. Among the host's arsenal of antimicrobial factors, the type 1 interferons (IFNs) induce potent defense mechanisms against viruses and are key in the host-virus standoff. Viruses have evolved multiple tricks to avoid the immediate antiviral effects of IFNs and, in turn, hosts have adapted use of this innate cytokine system to galvanize multiple additional layers of immune defense. The plasticity that exists in these interactions provides us with a lesson in détente.

1 Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.
2 Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Christine_Biron{at}

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The Journal of Infectious Disease 197, 1-3
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Type I Interferon Production during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Is Controlled by Cell-Type-Specific Viral Recognition through Toll-Like Receptor 9, the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein Pathway, and Novel Recognition Systems.
S. B. Rasmussen, L. N. Sorensen, L. Malmgaard, N. Ank, J. D. Baines, Z. J. Chen, and S. R. Paludan (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 13315-13324
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Activation of the Beta Interferon Promoter by Unnatural Sendai Virus Infection Requires RIG-I and Is Inhibited by Viral C Proteins.
L. Strahle, J.-B. Marq, A. Brini, S. Hausmann, D. Kolakofsky, and D. Garcin (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 12227-12237
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Regulation of IRF-3-dependent Innate Immunity by the Papain-like Protease Domain of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.
S. G. Devaraj, N. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Chen, M. Tseng, N. Barretto, R. Lin, C. J. Peters, C.-T. K. Tseng, S. C. Baker, et al. (2007)
J. Biol. Chem. 282, 32208-32221
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Differential Expression of Interferon (IFN) Regulatory Factors and IFN-Stimulated Genes at Early Times after West Nile Virus Infection of Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts.
S. V. Scherbik, B. M. Stockman, and M. A. Brinton (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 12005-12018
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Differential Role of TLR- and RLR-Signaling in the Immune Responses to Influenza A Virus Infection and Vaccination.
S. Koyama, K. J. Ishii, H. Kumar, T. Tanimoto, C. Coban, S. Uematsu, T. Kawai, and S. Akira (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 4711-4720
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High basal STAT4 balanced by STAT1 induction to control type 1 interferon effects in natural killer cells.
T. Miyagi, M. P. Gil, X. Wang, J. Louten, W.-M. Chu, and C. A. Biron (2007)
J. Exp. Med. 204, 2383-2396
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Differential Type I Interferon Induction by Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza A Virus In Vivo.
N. A. Jewell, N. Vaghefi, S. E. Mertz, P. Akter, R. S. Peebles Jr., L. O. Bakaletz, R. K. Durbin, E. Flano, and J. E. Durbin (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 9790-9800
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ORF6 Antagonizes STAT1 Function by Sequestering Nuclear Import Factors on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum/Golgi Membrane.
M. Frieman, B. Yount, M. Heise, S. A. Kopecky-Bromberg, P. Palese, and R. S. Baric (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 9812-9824
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Negative Regulation of TLR-Signaling Pathways by Activating Transcription Factor-3.
M. M. Whitmore, A. Iparraguirre, L. Kubelka, W. Weninger, T. Hai, and B. R. G. Williams (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 3622-3630
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Inhibition of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 (IRF7)-Mediated Interferon Signal Transduction by the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Viral IRF Homolog vIRF3.
C. H. Joo, Y. C. Shin, M. Gack, L. Wu, D. Levy, and J. U. Jung (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 8282-8292
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Inhibition of the Alpha/Beta Interferon Response by Mouse Hepatitis Virus at Multiple Levels.
J. K. Roth-Cross, L. Martinez-Sobrido, E. P. Scott, A. Garcia-Sastre, and S. R. Weiss (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 7189-7199
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Multiple Anti-Interferon Actions of the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein.
G. Kochs, A. Garcia-Sastre, and L. Martinez-Sobrido (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 7011-7021
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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