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Science 312 (5775): 914-918

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

PIN Proteins Perform a Rate-Limiting Function in Cellular Auxin Efflux

Jan Petrásek,1,2 Jozef Mravec,3 Rodolphe Bouchard,4 Joshua J. Blakeslee,5 Melinda Abas,6 Daniela Seifertová,1,2,3 Justyna Wisniewska,3,7 Zerihun Tadele,8 Martin Kubes,1,2 Milada Covanová,1,2 Pankaj Dhonukshe,3 Petr Skupa,1,2 Eva Benková,3 Lucie Perry,1 Pavel Krecek,1,2 Ok Ran Lee,5 Gerald R. Fink,9 Markus Geisler,4 Angus S. Murphy,5 Christian Luschnig,6 Eva Zazímalová,1* Jirí Friml3,10

Abstract: Intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin underpins multiple developmental processes in plants. Plant-specific pin-formed (PIN) proteins and several phosphoglycoprotein (PGP) transporters are crucial factors in auxin transport–related development, yet the molecular function of PINs remains unknown. Here, we show that PINs mediate auxin efflux from mammalian and yeast cells without needing additional plant-specific factors. Conditional gain-of-function alleles and quantitative measurements of auxin accumulation in Arabidopsis and tobacco cultured cells revealed that the action of PINs in auxin efflux is distinct from PGP, rate-limiting, specific to auxins, and sensitive to auxin transport inhibitors. This suggests a direct involvement of PINs in catalyzing cellular auxin efflux.

1 Institute of Experimental Botany, the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
2 Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic.
3 Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP), University Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
4 Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Zurich, Institute of Plant Biology, CH 8007 Zurich, Switzerland.
5 Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
6 Institute for Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences–Universität für Bodenkultur, A-1190 Wien, Austria.
7 Department of Biotechnology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, 87-100 Torun, Poland.
8 Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland.
9 Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
10 Masaryk University, Department of Functional Genomics and Proteomics, Laboratory of Molecular Plant Physiology, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: eva.zazim{at}ueb.cas.cz


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BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 Interaction with ZmPIN1a Suggests a Role in Auxin Transport During Maize Inflorescence Development.
A. Skirpan, A. H. Culler, A. Gallavotti, D. Jackson, J. D. Cohen, and P. McSteen (2009)
Plant Cell Physiol. 50, 652-657
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The polarly localized D6 PROTEIN KINASE is required for efficient auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana.
M. Zourelidou, I. Muller, B. C. Willige, C. Nill, Y. Jikumaru, H. Li, and C. Schwechheimer (2009)
Development 136, 627-636
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SCFTIR1/AFB and Membrane Sterols Play Key Roles in Auxin Regulation of Endocytosis, Recycling, and Plasma Membrane Accumulation of the Auxin Efflux Transporter PIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
J. Pan, S. Fujioka, J. Peng, J. Chen, G. Li, and R. Chen (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 568-580
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential degradation of PIN2 auxin efflux carrier by retromer-dependent vacuolar targeting.
J. Kleine-Vehn, J. Leitner, M. Zwiewka, M. Sauer, L. Abas, C. Luschnig, and J. Friml (2008)
PNAS 105, 17812-17817
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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