Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 312 (5775): 927-930

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Hypothalamic mTOR Signaling Regulates Food Intake

Daniela Cota,1 Karine Proulx,1 Kathi A. Blake Smith,1 Sara C. Kozma,2 George Thomas,2 Stephen C. Woods,1 Randy J. Seeley1*

Abstract: The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) protein is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates cell-cycle progression and growth by sensing changes in energy status. We demonstrated that mTOR signaling plays a role in the brain mechanisms that respond to nutrient availability, regulating energy balance. In the rat, mTOR signaling is controlled by energy status in specific regions of the hypothalamus and colocalizes with neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Central administration of leucine increases hypothalamic mTOR signaling and decreases food intake and body weight. The hormone leptin increases hypothalamic mTOR activity, and the inhibition of mTOR signaling blunts leptin's anorectic effect. Thus, mTOR is a cellular fuel sensor whose hypothalamic activity is directly tied to the regulation of energy intake.

1 Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Genome Research Institute, 2170 East Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA.
2 Department of Genome Science, University of Cincinnati, Genome Research Institute, 2170 East Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Randy.Seeley{at}uc.edu


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
The relationship between gut and adipose hormones, and reproduction.
A. N. Comninos, C. N. Jayasena, and W. S. Dhillo (2014)
Hum. Reprod. Update 20, 153-174
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin Signaling Is Required for Leucine Deprivation-enhanced Energy Expenditure.
Q. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Cheng, Q. Meng, T. Xia, L. Jiang, S. Chen, Y. Liu, and F. Guo (2014)
J. Biol. Chem. 289, 1779-1787
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evidence for Central Regulation of Glucose Metabolism.
M. Carey, S. Kehlenbrink, and M. Hawkins (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 34981-34988
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modulation of food intake by mTOR signalling in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in male rats: focus on ghrelin and nesfatin-1.
W. Zhang, C. Zhang, D. Fritze, B. Chai, J. Li, and M. W. Mulholland (2013)
Exp Physiol 98, 1696-1704
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents.
J. Jordi, B. Herzog, S. M. R. Camargo, C. N. Boyle, T. A. Lutz, and F. Verrey (2013)
J. Physiol. 591, 5611-5621
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effects of Oral Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Hepatic Encephalopathy and Outcome in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis.
T. Kawaguchi, E. Taniguchi, and M. Sata (2013)
Nutr Clin Pract 28, 580-588
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A recollection of mTOR signaling in learning and memory.
T. E. Graber, P. K. McCamphill, and W. S. Sossin (2013)
Learn. Mem. 20, 518-530
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Central administration of metformin into the third ventricle of C57BL/6 mice decreases meal size and number and activates hypothalamic S6 kinase.
H.-J. Kim, E.-Y. Park, M.-J. Oh, S.-S. Park, K.-H. Shin, S.-H. Choi, B.-G. Chun, and D.-H. Kim (2013)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 305, R499-R505
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanistic target of rapamycin controls homeostasis of adipogenesis.
M.-S. Yoon, C. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. J. Schoenherr, and J. Chen (2013)
J. Lipid Res. 54, 2166-2173
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Remodeling of Lipid Metabolism by Dietary Restriction of Essential Amino Acids.
T. G. Anthony, C. D. Morrison, and T. W. Gettys (2013)
Diabetes 62, 2635-2644
   Full Text »    PDF »
Obesity-driven synaptic remodeling affects endocannabinoid control of orexinergic neurons.
L. Cristino, G. Busetto, R. Imperatore, I. Ferrandino, L. Palomba, C. Silvestri, S. Petrosino, P. Orlando, M. Bentivoglio, K. Mackie, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, E2229-E2238
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin resistance is a secondary consequence of the obesity in ciliopathy mutant mice.
N. F. Berbari, R. C. Pasek, E. B. Malarkey, S. M. Z. Yazdi, A. D. McNair, W. R. Lewis, T. R. Nagy, R. A. Kesterson, and B. K. Yoder (2013)
PNAS 110, 7796-7801
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leucine Facilitates Insulin Signaling through a G{alpha}i Protein-dependent Signaling Pathway in Hepatocytes.
X. Yang, S. Mei, X. Wang, X. Li, R. Liu, Y. Ma, L. Hao, P. Yao, L. Liu, X. Sun, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 9313-9320
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Food as a Hormone.
K. K. Ryan and R. J. Seeley (2013)
Science 339, 918-919
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role for the obesity-related FTO gene in the cellular sensing of amino acids.
P. Gulati, M. K. Cheung, R. Antrobus, C. D. Church, H. P. Harding, Y.-C. L. Tung, D. Rimmington, M. Ma, D. Ron, P. J. Lehner, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 2557-2562
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inconsistencies in the assessment of food intake.
S. C. Woods and W. Langhans (2012)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303, E1408-E1418
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin and insulin pathways in POMC and AgRP neurons that modulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis.
L. Varela and T. L. Horvath (2012)
EMBO Rep. 13, 1079-1086
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Knowledge Gained from Studies of Leucine Consumption in Animals and Humans.
D. J. Millward (2012)
J. Nutr. 142, 2212S-2219S
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Olfaction Under Metabolic Influences.
B. Palouzier-Paulignan, M.-C. Lacroix, P. Aime, C. Baly, M. Caillol, P. Congar, A. K. Julliard, K. Tucker, and D. A. Fadool (2012)
Chem Senses 37, 769-797
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
S6K1 in the Central Nervous System Regulates Energy Expenditure via MC4R/CRH Pathways in Response to Deprivation of an Essential Amino Acid.
T. Xia, Y. Cheng, Q. Zhang, F. Xiao, B. Liu, S. Chen, and F. Guo (2012)
Diabetes 61, 2461-2471
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin-Induced mTOR Activation Defines a Specific Molecular and Transcriptional Signature Controlling CD4+ Effector T Cell Responses.
C. Procaccini, V. De Rosa, M. Galgani, F. Carbone, S. Cassano, D. Greco, K. Qian, P. Auvinen, G. Cali, G. Stallone, et al. (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 2941-2953
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kisspeptins and Reproduction: Physiological Roles and Regulatory Mechanisms.
L. Pinilla, E. Aguilar, C. Dieguez, R. P. Millar, and M. Tena-Sempere (2012)
Physiol Rev 92, 1235-1316
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Critical Role of Metabolic Pathways in Aging.
N. Barzilai, D. M. Huffman, R. H. Muzumdar, and A. Bartke (2012)
Diabetes 61, 1315-1322
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The ketone body {beta}-hydroxybutyric acid influences agouti-related peptide expression via AMP-activated protein kinase in hypothalamic GT1-7 cells.
T. Laeger, R. Pohland, C. C. Metges, and B. Kuhla (2012)
J. Endocrinol. 213, 193-203
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reverses obesity and regulates appetite through a central mTOR pathway.
K. L. Townsend, R. Suzuki, T. L. Huang, E. Jing, T. J. Schulz, K. Lee, C. M. Taniguchi, D. O. Espinoza, L. E. McDougall, H. Zhang, et al. (2012)
FASEB J 26, 2187-2196
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Homeostatic regulation of protein intake: in search of a mechanism.
C. D. Morrison, S. D. Reed, and T. M. Henagan (2012)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 302, R917-R928
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Loss of autophagy in hypothalamic POMC neurons impairs lipolysis.
S. Kaushik, E. Arias, H. Kwon, N. M. Lopez, D. Athonvarangkul, S. Sahu, G. J. Schwartz, J. E. Pessin, and R. Singh (2012)
EMBO Rep. 13, 258-265
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway in amylin's eating inhibitory effect.
C. S. Potes, C. N. Boyle, P. J. Wookey, T. Riediger, and T. A. Lutz (2012)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 302, R340-R351
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AMP-activated protein kinase is physiologically regulated by inositol polyphosphate multikinase.
S. Bang, S. Kim, M. J. Dailey, Y. Chen, T. H. Moran, S. H. Snyder, and S. F. Kim (2012)
PNAS 109, 616-620
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic Leucine Metabolism Regulates Liver Glucose Production.
Y. Su, T. K. T. Lam, W. He, A. Pocai, J. Bryan, L. Aguilar-Bryan, and R. Gutierrez-Juarez (2012)
Diabetes 61, 85-93
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired branched chain amino acid metabolism alters feeding behavior and increases orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus.
M. N. Purpera, L. Shen, M. Taghavi, H. Munzberg, R. J. Martin, S. M. Hutson, and C. D. Morrison (2012)
J. Endocrinol. 212, 85-94
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circadian intervention of obesity development via resting-stage feeding manipulation or oxytocin treatment.
G. Zhang and D. Cai (2011)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301, E1004-E1012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pharmaconutrition for the Obese, Critically Ill Patient.
R. T. Hurt, T. H. Frazier, S. A. McClave, and M. C. Cave (2011)
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 35, 60S-72S
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mammalian target of rapamycin mediates the angiogenic effects of leptin in human hepatic stellate cells.
S. Aleffi, N. Navari, W. Delogu, S. Galastri, E. Novo, K. Rombouts, M. Pinzani, M. Parola, and F. Marra (2011)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 301, G210-G219
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fluorescence-based fixative and vital staining of lipid droplets in Caenorhabditis elegans reveal fat stores using microscopy and flow cytometry approaches.
M. Klapper, M. Ehmke, D. Palgunow, M. Bohme, C. Matthaus, G. Bergner, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, and F. Doring (2011)
J. Lipid Res. 52, 1281-1293
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuronal suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 deficiency enhances hypothalamic leptin-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling.
A. S. Metlakunta, M. Sahu, H. Yasukawa, S. S. Dhillon, D. D. Belsham, A. Yoshimura, and A. Sahu (2011)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 300, R1185-R1193
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin and the Central Nervous System Control of Glucose Metabolism.
G. J. Morton and M. W. Schwartz (2011)
Physiol Rev 91, 389-411
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hyperphagia and Increased Fat Accumulation in Two Models of Chronic CNS Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Loss of Function.
J. G. Barrera, K. R. Jones, J. P. Herman, D. A. D'Alessio, S. C. Woods, and R. J. Seeley (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 3904-3913
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leucine Deprivation Increases Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity via GCN2/mTOR/S6K1 and AMPK Pathways.
F. Xiao, Z. Huang, H. Li, J. Yu, C. Wang, S. Chen, Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, X. Gao, J. Li, et al. (2011)
Diabetes 60, 746-756
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dietary fat sensing via fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes: possible role in the control of eating.
W. Langhans, C. Leitner, and M. Arnold (2011)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 300, R554-R565
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kisspeptin and fertility.
S. Hameed, C. N. Jayasena, and W. S. Dhillo (2011)
J. Endocrinol. 208, 97-105
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Higher Branched-Chain Amino Acid Intake Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged East Asian and Western Adults.
L.-Q. Qin, P. Xun, D. Bujnowski, M. L. Daviglus, L. Van Horn, J. Stamler, K. He, and for the INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group (2011)
J. Nutr. 141, 249-254
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A small-molecule scaffold induces autophagy in primary neurons and protects against toxicity in a Huntington disease model.
A. S. Tsvetkov, J. Miller, M. Arrasate, J. S. Wong, M. A. Pleiss, and S. Finkbeiner (2010)
PNAS 107, 16982-16987
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Role of mTOR Signaling in Controlling Mammalian Life Span: What a Fungicide Teaches Us About Longevity.
Z. D. Sharp and R. Strong (2010)
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65A, 580-589
   Full Text »    PDF »
Targeting Intermediary Metabolism in the Hypothalamus as a Mechanism to Regulate Appetite.
G. D. Lopaschuk, J. R. Ussher, and J. S. Jaswal (2010)
Pharmacol. Rev. 62, 237-264
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Modulates Photic Entrainment of the Suprachiasmatic Circadian Clock.
R. Cao, A. Li, H. y. Cho, B. Lee, and K. Obrietan (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 6302-6314
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Adipose Tissue Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Metabolism Modulates Circulating BCAA Levels.
M. A. Herman, P. She, O. D. Peroni, C. J. Lynch, and B. B. Kahn (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 11348-11356
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Signaling through Tyr985 of Leptin Receptor as an Age/Diet-Dependent Switch in the Regulation of Energy Balance.
J. You, Y. Yu, L. Jiang, W. Li, X. Yu, L. Gonzalez, G. Yang, Z. Ke, W. Li, C. Li, et al. (2010)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 30, 1650-1659
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Role of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Upregulation in Hypothalamic Leptin Resistance and Long-Term Energy Homeostasis.
A. S. Reed, E. K. Unger, L. E. Olofsson, M. L. Piper, M. G. Myers Jr, and A. W. Xu (2010)
Diabetes 59, 894-906
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Peptide Designed to Elicit Apoptosis in Adipose Tissue Endothelium Reduces Food Intake and Body Weight.
D.-H. Kim, S. C. Woods, and R. J. Seeley (2010)
Diabetes 59, 907-915
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differences in the Central Anorectic Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Exendin-4 in Rats.
J. G. Barrera, D. A. D'Alessio, D. J. Drucker, S. C. Woods, and R. J. Seeley (2009)
Diabetes 58, 2820-2827
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling and leptin resistance.
D. L. Morris and L. Rui (2009)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297, E1247-E1259
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Where Does Insulin Resistance Start?: The brain.
U. Pagotto (2009)
Diabetes Care 32, S174-S177
   Full Text »    PDF »
Symposium summary.
J. D Fernstrom (2009)
Am J Clin Nutr 90, 881S-885S
   Full Text »    PDF »
Protein, amino acids, vagus nerve signaling, and the brain.
D. Tome, J. Schwarz, N. Darcel, and G. Fromentin (2009)
Am J Clin Nutr 90, 838S-843S
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mediobasal Hypothalamic Leucine Sensing Regulates Food Intake through Activation of a Hypothalamus-Brainstem Circuit.
C. Blouet, Y.-H. Jo, X. Li, and G. J. Schwartz (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 8302-8311
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AMPK in Health and Disease.
G. R. Steinberg and B. E. Kemp (2009)
Physiol Rev 89, 1025-1078
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diet-derived nutrients mediate the inhibition of hypothalamic NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus of mice during refeeding.
C. Becskei, T. A. Lutz, and T. Riediger (2009)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 297, R100-R110
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The action of leptin in the ventral tegmental area to decrease food intake is dependent on Jak-2 signaling.
G. J. Morton, J. E. Blevins, F. Kim, M. Matsen, and D. P. Figlewicz (2009)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297, E202-E210
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CNS Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis.
C. K. L. Lam, M. Chari, and T. K. T. Lam (2009)
Physiology 24, 159-170
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inhibition of hypothalamic Foxo1 expression reduced food intake in diet-induced obesity rats.
E. R. Ropelle, J. R. Pauli, P. Prada, D. E. Cintra, G. Z. Rocha, J. C. Moraes, M. J. S. Frederico, G. da Luz, R. A. Pinho, J. B. C. Carvalheira, et al. (2009)
J. Physiol. 587, 2341-2351
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amino acid regulation of TOR complex 1.
J. Avruch, X. Long, S. Ortiz-Vega, J. Rapley, A. Papageorgiou, and N. Dai (2009)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296, E592-E602
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leucine Supplementation of Drinking Water Does Not Alter Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice.
A. Nairizi, P. She, T. C. Vary, and C. J. Lynch (2009)
J. Nutr. 139, 715-719
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Obesity Increases Vascular Senescence and Susceptibility to Ischemic Injury Through Chronic Activation of Akt and mTOR.
C.-Y. Wang, H.-H. Kim, Y. Hiroi, N. Sawada, S. Salomone, L. E. Benjamin, K. Walsh, M. A. Moskowitz, and J. K. Liao (2009)
Science Signaling 2, ra11
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic ERK Mediates the Anorectic and Thermogenic Sympathetic Effects of Leptin.
K. Rahmouni, C. D. Sigmund, W. G. Haynes, and A. L. Mark (2009)
Diabetes 58, 536-542
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Maternal Low-Protein Diet or Hypercholesterolemia Reduces Circulating Essential Amino Acids and Leads to Intrauterine Growth Restriction.
K. K. S. Bhasin, A. van Nas, L. J. Martin, R. C. Davis, S. U. Devaskar, and A. J. Lusis (2009)
Diabetes 58, 559-566
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Biological Approaches to Mechanistically Understand the Healthy Life Span Extension Achieved by Calorie Restriction and Modulation of Hormones.
N. Barzilai and A. Bartke (2009)
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Systemic regulation of starvation response in Caenorhabditis elegans.
C. Kang and L. Avery (2009)
Genes & Dev. 23, 12-17
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin, leptin, and food reward: update 2008.
D. P. Figlewicz and S. C. Benoit (2009)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 296, R9-R19
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of amino acid transporters by glucose and growth factors in cultured primary human trophoblast cells is mediated by mTOR signaling.
S. Roos, O. Lagerlof, M. Wennergren, T. L. Powell, and T. Jansson (2009)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 297, C723-C731
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin-enhanced neointimal hyperplasia is reduced by mTOR and PI3K inhibitors.
J. Shan, T. B. Nguyen, H. Totary-Jain, H. Dansky, S. O. Marx, and A. R. Marks (2008)
PNAS 105, 19006-19011
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Modulate Energy Balance via Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling in the Central Nervous System.
K. Proulx, D. Cota, S. C. Woods, and R. J. Seeley (2008)
Diabetes 57, 3231-3238
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of GM-CSF in adipose tissue inflammation.
D.-H. Kim, D. Sandoval, J. A. Reed, E. K. Matter, E. G. Tolod, S. C. Woods, and R. J. Seeley (2008)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E1038-E1046
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Adipose-immune interactions during obesity and caloric restriction: reciprocal mechanisms regulating immunity and health span.
V. D. Dixit (2008)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 84, 882-892
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuropoietin Attenuates Adipogenesis and Induces Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes.
U. A. White, W. C. Stewart, R. L. Mynatt, and J. M. Stephens (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 22505-22512
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Central lactate metabolism regulates food intake.
C. K. L. Lam, M. Chari, P. Y. T. Wang, and T. K. T. Lam (2008)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E491-E496
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Role of Hypothalamic Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling in Diet-Induced Obesity.
D. Cota, E. K. Matter, S. C. Woods, and R. J. Seeley (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 7202-7208
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proteins Activate Satiety-Related Neuronal Pathways in the Brainstem and Hypothalamus of Rats.
R. Faipoux, D. Tome, S. Gougis, N. Darcel, and G. Fromentin (2008)
J. Nutr. 138, 1172-1178
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neural Systems Controlling the Drive to Eat: Mind Versus Metabolism.
H. Zheng and H.-R. Berthoud (2008)
Physiology 23, 75-83
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The mammalian target of rapamycin-signaling pathway in regulating metabolism and growth.
X. Yang, C. Yang, A. Farberman, T. C. Rideout, C. F. M. de Lange, J. France, and M. Z. Fan (2008)
J Anim Sci 86, E36-E50
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Central Role for Neuronal AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in High-Protein Diet-Induced Weight Loss.
E. R. Ropelle, J. R. Pauli, M. F. A. Fernandes, S. A. Rocco, R. M. Marin, J. Morari, K. K. Souza, M. M. Dias, M. C. Gomes-Marcondes, J. A.R. Gontijo, et al. (2008)
Diabetes 57, 594-605
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin Induces Macrophage Lipid Body Formation by a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase- and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin-dependent Mechanism.
C. M. Maya-Monteiro, P. E. Almeida, H. D'Avila, A. S. Martins, A. P. Rezende, H. Castro-Faria-Neto, and P. T. Bozza (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 2203-2210
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Time-course studies of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in cerebrospinal fluid and brain of primates after oral or intracerebral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent.
B. Yutzy, E. Holznagel, C. Coulibaly, A. Stuke, U. Hahmann, J.-P. Deslys, G. Hunsmann, and J. Lower (2007)
J. Gen. Virol. 88, 3469-3478
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Obesity-related elevations in plasma leucine are associated with alterations in enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism.
P. She, C. Van Horn, T. Reid, S. M. Hutson, R. N. Cooney, and C. J. Lynch (2007)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293, E1552-E1563
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Long Form of the Leptin Receptor Regulates STAT5 and Ribosomal Protein S6 via Alternate Mechanisms.
Y. Gong, R. Ishida-Takahashi, E. C. Villanueva, D. C. Fingar, H. Munzberg, and M. G. Myers Jr. (2007)
J. Biol. Chem. 282, 31019-31027
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nitric oxide's role in glucose homeostasis.
M. B. Barnes and J. L. Beverly (2007)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 293, R590-R591
   Full Text »    PDF »
Hyperglycemia impairs glucose and insulin regulation of nitric oxide production in glucose-inhibited neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus.
D. D. Canabal, J. G. Potian, R. G. Duran, J. J. McArdle, and V. H. Routh (2007)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 293, R592-R600
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amino acids inhibit Agrp gene expression via an mTOR-dependent mechanism.
C. D. Morrison, X. Xi, C. L. White, J. Ye, and R. J. Martin (2007)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293, E165-E171
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms Regulating Feed Intake, Energy Expenditure, and Body Weight in Poultry.
M. P. Richards and M. Proszkowiec-Weglarz (2007)
Poultry Science 86, 1478-1490
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Increasing Dietary Leucine Intake Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism in Mice via Multimechanisms.
Y. Zhang, K. Guo, R. E. LeBlanc, D. Loh, G. J. Schwartz, and Y.-H. Yu (2007)
Diabetes 56, 1647-1654
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Mouse Model of Tuberous Sclerosis: Neuronal Loss of Tsc1 Causes Dysplastic and Ectopic Neurons, Reduced Myelination, Seizure Activity, and Limited Survival.
L. Meikle, D. M. Talos, H. Onda, K. Pollizzi, A. Rotenberg, M. Sahin, F. E. Jensen, and D. J. Kwiatkowski (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 5546-5558
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amino acids, taste circuits, and feeding behavior in Drosophila: towards understanding the psychology of feeding in flies and man.
C. Melcher, R. Bader, and M. J Pankratz (2007)
J. Endocrinol. 192, 467-472
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Appropriate Inhibition of Orexigenic Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus Neurons Independently of Leptin Receptor/STAT3 Signaling.
H. Munzberg, E. E. Jobst, S. H. Bates, J. Jones, E. Villanueva, R. Leshan, M. Bjornholm, J. Elmquist, M. Sleeman, M. A. Cowley, et al. (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 69-74
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AMPK integrates nutrient and hormonal signals to regulate food intake and energy balance through effects in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues.
B. Xue and B. B. Kahn (2006)
J. Physiol. 574, 73-83
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuroscience. Regulating energy balance: the substrate strikes back..
J. S. Flier (2006)
Science 312, 861-864
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882