Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 313 (5795): 1922-1927

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Gene Regulatory Networks in the Evolution and Development of the Heart

Eric N. Olson

Abstract: The heart, an ancient organ and the first to form and function during embryogenesis, evolved by the addition of new structures and functions to a primitive pump. Heart development is controlled by an evolutionarily conserved network of transcription factors that connect signaling pathways with genes for muscle growth, patterning, and contractility. During evolution, this ancestral gene network was expanded through gene duplication and co-option of additional networks. Mutations in components of the cardiac gene network cause congenital heart disease, the most common human birth defect. The consequences of such mutations reveal the logic of organogenesis and the evolutionary origins of morphological complexity.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

E-mail: eric.olson{at}

Dissecting spatio-temporal protein networks driving human heart development and related disorders.
K. Lage, K. Mollgard, S. Greenway, H. Wakimoto, J. M. Gorham, C. T. Workman, E. Bendsen, N. T. Hansen, O. Rigina, F. S. Roque, et al. (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 6, 381
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Post-Myocardial Infarction Repair: Remarkable Opportunities and Challenges.
P. A. Lalit, D. J. Hei, A. N. Raval, and T. J. Kamp (2014)
Circ. Res. 114, 1328-1345
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Noninvasive and quantitative live imaging reveals a potential stress-responsive enhancer in the failing heart.
K. Matsuoka, Y. Asano, S. Higo, O. Tsukamoto, Y. Yan, S. Yamazaki, T. Matsuzaki, H. Kioka, H. Kato, Y. Uno, et al. (2014)
FASEB J 28, 1870-1879
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Form, function, and evolution of living organisms.
J. R. Banavar, T. J. Cooke, A. Rinaldo, and A. Maritan (2014)
PNAS 111, 3332-3337
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oxytocin-Gly-Lys-Arg stimulates cardiomyogenesis by targeting cardiac side population cells.
B. A. Danalache, C. Yu, J. Gutkowska, and M. Jankowski (2014)
J. Endocrinol. 220, 277-289
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex during early heart development and BAF250a repression cardiac gene transcription during P19 cell differentiation.
A. P. Singh and T. K. Archer (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res. 42, 2958-2975
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Machine learning classification of cell-specific cardiac enhancers uncovers developmental subnetworks regulating progenitor cell division and cell fate specification.
S. M. Ahmad, B. W. Busser, D. Huang, E. J. Cozart, S. Michaud, X. Zhu, N. Jeffries, A. Aboukhalil, M. L. Bulyk, I. Ovcharenko, et al. (2014)
Development 141, 878-888
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Numb family proteins are essential for cardiac morphogenesis and progenitor differentiation.
C. Zhao, H. Guo, J. Li, T. Myint, W. Pittman, L. Yang, W. Zhong, R. J. Schwartz, J. J. Schwarz, H. A. Singer, et al. (2014)
Development 141, 281-295
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural and functional analysis of the related transcriptional enhancer factor-1 and NF-{kappa}B interaction.
J. Ma, L. Zhang, A. R. Tipton, J. Wu, A. F. Messmer-Blust, M. J. Philbrick, Y. Qi, S.-T. Liu, H. Liu, J. Li, et al. (2014)
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 306, H233-H242
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Small Molecule-Mediated Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.
I. Karakikes, G. D. Senyei, J. Hansen, C.-W. Kong, E. U. Azeloglu, F. Stillitano, D. K. Lieu, J. Wang, L. Ren, J.-S. Hulot, et al. (2014)
Stem Cells Trans Med 3, 18-31
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The eel heart: multilevel insights into functional organ plasticity.
S. Imbrogno (2013)
J. Exp. Biol. 216, 3575-3586
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Direct Cardiac Reprogramming: From Developmental Biology to Cardiac Regeneration.
L. Qian and D. Srivastava (2013)
Circ. Res. 113, 915-921
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cellular Reprogramming: A New Avenue to Cardiac Regeneration?.
A. J. White, D. Arasaratnam, D. A. Elliott, and D. M. Kaye (2013)
Circ Heart Fail 6, 1102-1107
   Full Text »    PDF »
Bmp signaling represses Vegfa to promote outflow tract cushion development.
Y. Bai, J. Wang, Y. Morikawa, M. Bonilla-Claudio, E. Klysik, and J. F. Martin (2013)
Development 140, 3395-3402
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Getting to the heart of the matter: long non-coding RNAs in cardiac development and disease.
J. C. Scheuermann and L. A. Boyer (2013)
EMBO J. 32, 1805-1816
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recruitment and remodeling of an ancient gene regulatory network during land plant evolution.
N. D. Pires, K. Yi, H. Breuninger, B. Catarino, B. Menand, and L. Dolan (2013)
PNAS 110, 9571-9576
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MicroRNA-22 Regulates Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling in Response to Stress.
Z.-P. Huang, J. Chen, H. Y. Seok, Z. Zhang, M. Kataoka, X. Hu, and D.-Z. Wang (2013)
Circ. Res. 112, 1234-1243
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GATA factors efficiently direct cardiac fate from embryonic stem cells.
H. K. Turbendian, M. Gordillo, S.-Y. Tsai, J. Lu, G. Kang, T.-C. Liu, A. Tang, S. Liu, G. I. Fishman, and T. Evans (2013)
Development 140, 1639-1644
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circulation Research Thematic Synopsis: Cardiovascular Development.
The Editors (2013)
Circ. Res. 112, e69-e86
   Full Text »    PDF »
Zebrafish second heart field development relies on progenitor specification in anterior lateral plate mesoderm and nkx2.5 function.
B. Guner-Ataman, N. Paffett-Lugassy, M. S. Adams, K. R. Nevis, L. Jahangiri, P. Obregon, K. Kikuchi, K. D. Poss, C. E. Burns, and C. G. Burns (2013)
Development 140, 1353-1363
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Essential and Unexpected Role of Yin Yang 1 to Promote Mesodermal Cardiac Differentiation.
S. Gregoire, R. Karra, D. Passer, M.-A. Deutsch, M. Krane, R. Feistritzer, A. Sturzu, I. Domian, Y. Saga, and S. M. Wu (2013)
Circ. Res. 112, 900-910
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Signaling and Transcriptional Networks in Heart Development and Regeneration.
B. G. Bruneau (2013)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5, a008292
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
BAF60 A, B, and Cs of muscle determination and renewal.
P. L. Puri and M. Mercola (2012)
Genes & Dev. 26, 2673-2683
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lengthening of 3'UTR increases with morphological complexity in animal evolution.
C.-Y. Chen, S.-T. Chen, H.-F. Juan, and H.-C. Huang (2012)
Bioinformatics 28, 3178-3181
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endothelial deletion of murine Jag1 leads to valve calcification and congenital heart defects associated with Alagille syndrome.
J. J. Hofmann, A. Briot, J. Enciso, A. C. Zovein, S. Ren, Z. W. Zhang, F. Radtke, M. Simons, Y. Wang, and M. L. Iruela-Arispe (2012)
Development 139, 4449-4460
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epitranscriptional orchestration of genetic reprogramming is an emergent property of stress-regulated cardiac microRNAs.
Y. Hu, S. J. Matkovich, P. A. Hecker, Y. Zhang, J. R. Edwards, and G. W. Dorn II (2012)
PNAS 109, 19864-19869
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cooperative and antagonistic roles for Irx3 and Irx5 in cardiac morphogenesis and postnatal physiology.
N. Gaborit, R. Sakuma, J. N. Wylie, K.-H. Kim, S.-S. Zhang, C.-C. Hui, and B. G. Bruneau (2012)
Development 139, 4007-4019
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circulation Research Thematic Synopsis: Cardiovascular Development.
The Editors (2012)
Circ. Res. 111, e205-e229
   Full Text »    PDF »
Genes and networks regulating cardiac development and function in flies: genetic and functional genomic approaches.
D. Seyres, L. Roder, and L. Perrin (2012)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 11, 366-374
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sildenafil enhances systolic adaptation, but does not prevent diastolic dysfunction, in the pressure-loaded right ventricle.
M. A. J. Borgdorff, B. Bartelds, M. G. Dickinson, B. Boersma, M. Weij, A. Zandvoort, H. H. W. Sillje, P. Steendijk, M. de Vroomen, and R. M. F. Berger (2012)
Eur J Heart Fail 14, 1067-1074
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes: A Methods Overview.
C. L. Mummery, J. Zhang, E. S. Ng, D. A. Elliott, A. G. Elefanty, and T. J. Kamp (2012)
Circ. Res. 111, 344-358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt/{beta}-catenin and Bmp signals control distinct sets of transcription factors in cardiac progenitor cells.
A. Klaus, M. Muller, H. Schulz, Y. Saga, J. F. Martin, and W. Birchmeier (2012)
PNAS 109, 10921-10926
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dissociation of Cardiogenic and Postnatal Myocardial Activities of GATA4.
J. M. Gallagher, H. Komati, E. Roy, M. Nemer, and B. V. Latinkic (2012)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 2214-2223
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Resolving a Catch-22 in Cardiac Gene Regulation.
G. W. Dorn II (2012)
Circulation 125, 2695-2697
   Full Text »    PDF »
Cardiac Expression of ms1/STARS, a Novel Gene Involved in Cardiac Development and Disease, Is Regulated by GATA4.
S. Ounzain, S. Kobayashi, R. E. Peterson, A. He, A. Motterle, N. J. Samani, D. R. Menick, W. T. Pu, Q. Liang, and N. W. Chong (2012)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 1830-1843
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A New Level of Complexity: The Role of MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Development.
T. Boettger and T. Braun (2012)
Circ. Res. 110, 1000-1013
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Decoding the Cardiac Message: The 2011 Thomas W. Smith Memorial Lecture.
G. W. Dorn II (2012)
Circ. Res. 110, 755-763
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gene Array Analyzer: alternative usage of gene arrays to study alternative splicing events.
P. Gellert, M. Teranishi, K. Jenniches, P. De Gaspari, D. John, K. grosse Kreymborg, T. Braun, and S. Uchida (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 2414-2425
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Morphological evolution in land plants: new designs with old genes.
N. D. Pires and L. Dolan (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 508-518
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diverse functions of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in development and cancer.
J. I. Wu (2012)
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin 44, 54-69
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Orchestration of Mammalian Tissue Morphogenesis through a Series of Coherent Feed-forward Loops.
Q. Xie and A. Cvekl (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 43259-43271
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of Transcriptome Complexity Through RNA Sequencing in Normal and Failing Murine Hearts.
J.-H. Lee, C. Gao, G. Peng, C. Greer, S. Ren, Y. Wang, and X. Xiao (2011)
Circ. Res. 109, 1332-1341
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential responses of the right ventricle to abnormal loading conditions in mice: pressure vs. volume load.
B. Bartelds, M. A. Borgdorff, A. Smit-van Oosten, J. Takens, B. Boersma, M. G. Nederhoff, N. J. Elzenga, W. H. van Gilst, L. J. De Windt, and R. M. F. Berger (2011)
Eur J Heart Fail 13, 1275-1282
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protein Kinase D3 Is a Pivotal Activator of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy by Selectively Increasing the Expression of Hypertrophic Transcription Factors.
C. Li, J. Li, X. Cai, H. Sun, J. Jiao, T. Bai, X. W. Zhou, X. Chen, D. L. Gill, and X. D. Tang (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 40782-40791
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
JAK/Stat signaling regulates heart precursor diversification in Drosophila.
A. N. Johnson, M. H. Mokalled, T. N. Haden, and E. N. Olson (2011)
Development 138, 4627-4638
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Drosophila, Genetic Screens, and Cardiac Function.
M. J. Wolf and H. A. Rockman (2011)
Circ. Res. 109, 794-806
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hadp1, a newly identified pleckstrin homology domain protein, is required for cardiac contractility in zebrafish.
J. D. Wythe, M. J. Jurynec, L. D. Urness, C. A. Jones, M. K. Sabeh, A. A. Werdich, M. Sato, H. J. Yost, D. J. Grunwald, C. A. MacRae, et al. (2011)
Dis. Model. Mech. 4, 607-621
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution.
R. C. Bertossa (2011)
Phil Trans R Soc B 366, 2056-2068
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pharyngeal mesoderm development during embryogenesis: implications for both heart and head myogenesis.
E. Tzahor and S. M. Evans (2011)
Cardiovasc Res 91, 196-202
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genie: literature-based gene prioritization at multi genomic scale.
J.-F. Fontaine, F. Priller, A. Barbosa-Silva, and M. A. Andrade-Navarro (2011)
Nucleic Acids Res. 39, W455-W461
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tinman/Nkx2-5 acts via miR-1 and upstream of Cdc42 to regulate heart function across species.
L. Qian, J. D. Wythe, J. Liu, J. Cartry, G. Vogler, B. Mohapatra, R. T. Otway, Y. Huang, I. N. King, M. Maillet, et al. (2011)
J. Cell Biol. 193, 1181-1196
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cardiac neural crest is dispensable for outflow tract septation in Xenopus.
Y.-H. Lee and J.-P. Saint-Jeannet (2011)
Development 138, 2025-2034
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endothelial Jarid2/Jumonji Is Required for Normal Cardiac Development and Proper Notch1 Expression.
M. R. Mysliwiec, E. H. Bresnick, and Y. Lee (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 17193-17204
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Coordinated regulation of differentiation and proliferation of embryonic cardiomyocytes by a jumonji (Jarid2)-cyclin D1 pathway.
K. Nakajima, M. Inagawa, C. Uchida, K. Okada, S. Tane, M. Kojima, M. Kubota, M. Noda, S. Ogawa, H. Shirato, et al. (2011)
Development 138, 1771-1782
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Co-occupancy by multiple cardiac transcription factors identifies transcriptional enhancers active in heart.
A. He, S. W. Kong, Q. Ma, and W. T. Pu (2011)
PNAS 108, 5632-5637
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The fibronectin leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein Flrt2 is required in the epicardium to promote heart morphogenesis.
P.-S. Muller, R. Schulz, S. Maretto, I. Costello, S. Srinivas, E. Bikoff, and E. Robertson (2011)
Development 138, 1297-1308
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Defining the earliest step of cardiovascular progenitor specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation.
A. Bondue, S. Tannler, G. Chiapparo, S. Chabab, M. Ramialison, C. Paulissen, B. Beck, R. Harvey, and C. Blanpain (2011)
J. Cell Biol. 192, 751-765
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cardiac muscle regeneration: lessons from development.
M. Mercola, P. Ruiz-Lozano, and M. D. Schneider (2011)
Genes & Dev. 25, 299-309
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Computational Models Reduce Complexity and Accelerate Insight Into Cardiac Signaling Networks.
J. H. Yang and J. J. Saucerman (2011)
Circ. Res. 108, 85-97
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cardiopoietic Factors: Extracellular Signals for Cardiac Lineage Commitment.
M. Noseda, T. Peterkin, F. C. Simoes, R. Patient, and M. D. Schneider (2011)
Circ. Res. 108, 129-152
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The neural crest-enriched microRNA miR-452 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in the first pharyngeal arch.
N. T. Sheehy, K. R. Cordes, M. P. White, K. N. Ivey, and D. Srivastava (2010)
Development 137, 4307-4316
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mesp1: A Key Regulator of Cardiovascular Lineage Commitment.
A. Bondue and C. Blanpain (2010)
Circ. Res. 107, 1414-1427
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
skNAC, a Smyd1-interacting transcription factor, is involved in cardiac development and skeletal muscle growth and regeneration.
C. Y. Park, S. A. Pierce, M. von Drehle, K. N. Ivey, J. A. Morgan, H. M. Blau, and D. Srivastava (2010)
PNAS 107, 20750-20755
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in the Heart: Angels Versus Demons in a Heart-Breaking Tale.
B. A. Rose, T. Force, and Y. Wang (2010)
Physiol Rev 90, 1507-1546
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dynamic MicroRNA Expression Programs During Cardiac Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Role for miR-499.
K. D. Wilson, S. Hu, S. Venkatasubrahmanyam, J.-D. Fu, N. Sun, O. J. Abilez, J. J. A. Baugh, F. Jia, Z. Ghosh, R. A. Li, et al. (2010)
Circ Cardiovasc Genet 3, 426-435
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Three-Dimensional and Molecular Analysis of the Venous Pole of the Developing Human Heart.
A. Sizarov, R. H. Anderson, V. M. Christoffels, and A. F. M. Moorman (2010)
Circulation 122, 798-807
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology.
N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier (2010)
PNAS 107, 14662-14667
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Early Chordate Origins of the Vertebrate Second Heart Field.
A. Stolfi, T. B. Gainous, J. J. Young, A. Mori, M. Levine, and L. Christiaen (2010)
Science 329, 565-568
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stat3 Directly Controls the Expression of Tbx5, Nkx2.5, and GATA4 and Is Essential for Cardiomyocyte Differentiation of P19CL6 Cells.
M. Snyder, X.-Y. Huang, and J. J. Zhang (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 23639-23646
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Essential Roles of an Intercalated Disc Protein, mXin{beta}, in Postnatal Heart Growth and Survival.
Q. Wang, J. L.-C. Lin, B. E. Reinking, H.-Z. Feng, F.-C. Chan, C.-I. Lin, J.-P. Jin, E. A. Gustafson-Wagner, T. D. Scholz, B. Yang, et al. (2010)
Circ. Res. 106, 1468-1478
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Are Required for Heart Development in Zebrafish.
S. S. Chopra, D. M. Stroud, H. Watanabe, J. S. Bennett, C. G. Burns, K. S. Wells, T. Yang, T. P. Zhong, and D. M. Roden (2010)
Circ. Res. 106, 1342-1350
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Zac1 Is an Essential Transcription Factor for Cardiac Morphogenesis.
S. Yuasa, T. Onizuka, K. Shimoji, Y. Ohno, T. Kageyama, S. H. Yoon, T. Egashira, T. Seki, H. Hashimoto, T. Nishiyama, et al. (2010)
Circ. Res. 106, 1083-1091
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MicroRNAs coordinate an alternative splicing network during mouse postnatal heart development.
A. Kalsotra, K. Wang, P. F. Li, and T. A. Cooper (2010)
Genes & Dev. 24, 653-658
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparing Pumps.
R. Williams (2010)
Circ. Res. 106, 809-811
   Full Text »    PDF »
Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans.
C. Arenas-Mena (2010)
Phil Trans R Soc B 365, 653-669
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates cardiac growth and development.
Z. Qiu, Y. Cang, and S. P. Goff (2010)
PNAS 107, 1136-1141
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of a coronary vascular progenitor cell in the human heart.
C. Bearzi, A. Leri, F. Lo Monaco, M. Rota, A. Gonzalez, T. Hosoda, M. Pepe, K. Qanud, C. Ojaimi, S. Bardelli, et al. (2009)
PNAS 106, 15885-15890
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GATA6 mutations cause human cardiac outflow tract defects by disrupting semaphorin-plexin signaling.
K. Kodo, T. Nishizawa, M. Furutani, S. Arai, E. Yamamura, K. Joo, T. Takahashi, R. Matsuoka, and H. Yamagishi (2009)
PNAS 106, 13933-13938
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cx30.2 enhancer analysis identifies Gata4 as a novel regulator of atrioventricular delay.
N. V. Munshi, J. McAnally, S. Bezprozvannaya, J. M. Berry, J. A. Richardson, J. A. Hill, and E. N. Olson (2009)
Development 136, 2665-2674
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cardiac repair and regeneration: the Rubik's cube of cell therapy for heart disease.
K. D. Boudoulas and A. K. Hatzopoulos (2009)
Dis. Model. Mech. 2, 344-358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genomic profiling of developing cardiomyocytes from recombinant murine embryonic stem cells reveals regulation of transcription factor clusters.
M. J. Seewald, P. Ellinghaus, A. Kassner, I. Stork, M. Barg, S. Niebrugge, S. Golz, H. Summer, R. Zweigerdt, E.-M. Schrader, et al. (2009)
Physiol Genomics 38, 7-15
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evidence for Coregulation of Myocardial Gene Expression by MEF2 and NFAT in Human Heart Failure.
M. E. Putt, S. Hannenhalli, Y. Lu, P. Haines, H. R. Chandrupatla, E. E. Morrisey, K. B. Margulies, and T. P. Cappola (2009)
Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2, 212-219
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fresh fields and pathways new: recent genetic insights into cardiac malformation.
F T Leong, L J Freeman, and B D Keavney (2009)
Heart 95, 442-447
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multipotent Islet-1 Cardiovascular Progenitors in Development and Disease.
A. Nakano, H. Nakano, and K.R. Chien (2009)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol
   Abstract »    PDF »
Nkx2-5 transactivates the Ets-related protein 71 gene and specifies an endothelial/endocardial fate in the developing embryo.
A. Ferdous, A. Caprioli, M. Iacovino, C. M. Martin, J. Morris, J. A. Richardson, S. Latif, R. E. Hammer, R. P. Harvey, E. N. Olson, et al. (2009)
PNAS 106, 814-819
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A postnatal switch of CELF and MBNL proteins reprograms alternative splicing in the developing heart.
A. Kalsotra, X. Xiao, A. J. Ward, J. C. Castle, J. M. Johnson, C. B. Burge, and T. A. Cooper (2008)
PNAS 105, 20333-20338
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
microRNA-133a regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and suppresses smooth muscle gene expression in the heart.
N. Liu, S. Bezprozvannaya, A. H. Williams, X. Qi, J. A. Richardson, R. Bassel-Duby, and E. N. Olson (2008)
Genes & Dev. 22, 3242-3254
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Notch1 regulates the fate of cardiac progenitor cells.
A. Boni, K. Urbanek, A. Nascimbene, T. Hosoda, H. Zheng, F. Delucchi, K. Amano, A. Gonzalez, S. Vitale, C. Ojaimi, et al. (2008)
PNAS 105, 15529-15534
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tra2{beta} As a Novel Mediator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Diversification.
S. Shukla and S. A. Fisher (2008)
Circ. Res. 103, 485-492
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt signaling in Pristionchus pacificus gonadal arm extension and the evolution of organ shape.
D. Rudel, H. Tian, and R. J. Sommer (2008)
PNAS 105, 10826-10831
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Foxn4 directly regulates tbx2b expression and atrioventricular canal formation.
N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, S. De Val, G. Kang, L. Y. Jan, B. L. Black, and D. Y.R. Stainier (2008)
Genes & Dev. 22, 734-739
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function.
P. J. Scherz, J. Huisken, P. Sahai-Hernandez, and D. Y. R. Stainier (2008)
Development 135, 1179-1187
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882