Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 314 (5802): 1157-1160

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Generation of Gut-Homing IgA-Secreting B Cells by Intestinal Dendritic Cells

J. Rodrigo Mora,1*{dagger} Makoto Iwata,2* Bertus Eksteen,3* Si-Young Song,2 Tobias Junt,1 Balimkiz Senman,1 Kevin L. Otipoby,1 Aya Yokota,2 Hajime Takeuchi,2 Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli,4 Klaus Rajewsky,1 David H. Adams,3 Ulrich H. von Andrian1{dagger}

Abstract: Normal intestinal mucosa contains abundant immunoglobulin A (IgA)–secreting cells, which are generated from B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). We show that dendritic cells (DC) from GALT induce T cell–independent expression of IgA and gut-homing receptors on B cells. GALT-DC–derived retinoic acid (RA) alone conferred gut tropism but could not promote IgA secretion. However, RA potently synergized with GALT-DC–derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) or IL-5 to induce IgA secretion. Consequently, mice deficient in the RA precursor vitamin A lacked IgA-secreting cells in the small intestine. Thus, GALT-DC shape mucosal immunity by modulating B cell migration and effector activity through synergistically acting mediators.

1 CBR Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
2 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa Campus, Tokushima Bunri University, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193, Japan.
3 MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
4 Department of Biotechnology and Bioscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, Milan, Italy.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: uva{at} (U.H.V.A.); mora{at} (J.R.M.)

Dissecting the Role of Retinoic Acid Receptor Isoforms in the CD8 Response to Infection.
Y. Guo, Y.-C. Lee, C. Brown, W. Zhang, E. Usherwood, and R. J. Noelle (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 3336-3344
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Immunology of Food Allergy.
L. K. Johnston, K. B. Chien, and P. J. Bryce (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 2529-2534
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of the mucosal phenotype in dendritic cells by PPAR{gamma}: role of tissue microenvironment.
H. Tuna, R. G. Avdiushko, V. J. Sindhava, L. Wedlund, C. S. Kaetzel, A. M. Kaplan, S. Bondada, and D. A. Cohen (2014)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 95, 471-485
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nonredundant Function of Soluble LT{alpha}3 Produced by Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Homeostasis.
A. A. Kruglov, S. I. Grivennikov, D. V. Kuprash, C. Winsauer, S. Prepens, G. M. Seleznik, G. Eberl, D. R. Littman, M. Heikenwalder, A. V. Tumanov, et al. (2013)
Science 342, 1243-1246
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Parasite Infections in Multiple Sclerosis Modulate Immune Responses through a Retinoic Acid-Dependent Pathway.
J. Correale and M. F. Farez (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 3827-3837
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoic acid controls the homeostasis of pre-cDC-derived splenic and intestinal dendritic cells.
C. A. Klebanoff, S. P. Spencer, P. Torabi-Parizi, J. R. Grainger, R. Roychoudhuri, Y. Ji, M. Sukumar, P. Muranski, C. D. Scott, J. A. Hall, et al. (2013)
J. Exp. Med. 210, 1961-1976
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
B Cell-Intrinsic and -Extrinsic Regulation of Antibody Responses by PARP14, an Intracellular (ADP-Ribosyl)Transferase.
S. H. Cho, A. Raybuck, M. Wei, J. Erickson, K. T. Nam, R. G. Cox, A. Trochtenberg, J. W. Thomas, J. Williams, and M. Boothby (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 3169-3178
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
RDH10, RALDH2, and CRABP2 are required components of PPAR{gamma}-directed ATRA synthesis and signaling in human dendritic cells.
A. Gyongyosi, I. Szatmari, A. Pap, B. Dezso, Z. Pos, L. Szeles, T. Varga, and L. Nagy (2013)
J. Lipid Res. 54, 2458-2474
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoic acid, acting as a highly specific IgA isotype switch factor, cooperates with TGF-{beta}1 to enhance the overall IgA response.
G.-Y. Seo, Y.-S. Jang, H.-A. Kim, M.-R. Lee, M.-H. Park, S.-R. Park, J.-M. Lee, J. Choe, and P.-H. Kim (2013)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 94, 325-335
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Critical Role of Dendritic Cells in T Cell Retention in the Interfollicular Region of Peyer's Patches.
T. Obata, N. Shibata, Y. Goto, I. Ishikawa, S. Sato, J. Kunisawa, and H. Kiyono (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 942-948
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GPR15-Mediated Homing Controls Immune Homeostasis in the Large Intestine Mucosa.
S. V. Kim, W. V. Xiang, C. Kwak, Y. Yang, X. W. Lin, M. Ota, U. Sarpel, D. B. Rifkin, R. Xu, and D. R. Littman (2013)
Science 340, 1456-1459
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoic acid expression associates with enhanced IL-22 production by {gamma}{delta} T cells and innate lymphoid cells and attenuation of intestinal inflammation.
L. A. Mielke, S. A. Jones, M. Raverdeau, R. Higgs, A. Stefanska, J. R. Groom, A. Misiak, L. S. Dungan, C. E. Sutton, G. Streubel, et al. (2013)
J. Exp. Med. 210, 1117-1124
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prenatally Acquired Vitamin A Deficiency Alters Innate Immune Responses to Human Rotavirus in a Gnotobiotic Pig Model.
A. N. Vlasova, K. S. Chattha, S. Kandasamy, C. S. Siegismund, and L. J. Saif (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 4742-4753
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of the Gut Microbiota in the Development and Function of Lymphoid Cells.
N. Kamada and G. Nunez (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 1389-1395
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lymphotoxin Alpha-Deficient Mice Clear Persistent Rotavirus Infection after Local Generation of Mucosal IgA.
U. Lopatin, S. E. Blutt, M. E. Conner, and B. L. Kelsall (2013)
J. Virol. 87, 524-530
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oral Clarithromycin Enhances Airway Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Immunity through Induction of IgA Class Switching Recombination and B-Cell-Activating Factor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Molecule on Mucosal Dendritic Cells in Mice Infected with Influenza A Virus.
E. Takahashi, K. Kataoka, I. L. Indalao, K. Konoha, K. Fujii, J. Chida, D. Mizuno, K. Fujihashi, and H. Kido (2012)
J. Virol. 86, 10924-10934
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Retinoic Acid--Rich Tumor Microenvironment Provides Clonal Survival Cues for Tumor-Specific CD8+ T Cells.
Y. Guo, K. Pino-Lagos, C. A. Ahonen, K. A. Bennett, J. Wang, J. L. Napoli, R. Blomhoff, S. Sockanathan, R. A. Chandraratna, E. Dmitrovsky, et al. (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 5230-5239
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reduced Frequencies and Heightened CD103 Expression among Virus-Induced CD8+ T Cells in the Respiratory Tract Airways of Vitamin A-Deficient Mice.
R. Rudraraju, S. L. Surman, B. G. Jones, R. Sealy, D. L. Woodland, and J. L. Hurwitz (2012)
Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 19, 757-765
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nuclear Hormone Receptors Enable Macrophages and Dendritic Cells to Sense Their Lipid Environment and Shape Their Immune Response.
L. Nagy, A. Szanto, I. Szatmari, and L. Szeles (2012)
Physiol Rev 92, 739-789
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflammation switches the differentiation program of Ly6Chi monocytes from antiinflammatory macrophages to inflammatory dendritic cells in the colon.
A. Rivollier, J. He, A. Kole, V. Valatas, and B. L. Kelsall (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 139-155
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dendritic cells in bacteria handling in the gut.
M. Rescigno (2011)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 90, 669-672
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoic Acid as a Vaccine Adjuvant Enhances CD8+ T Cell Response and Mucosal Protection from Viral Challenge.
X. Tan, J. L. Sande, J. S. Pufnock, J. N. Blattman, and P. D. Greenberg (2011)
J. Virol. 85, 8316-8327
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Vaccine-Elicited Gastrointestinal Immunity.
D. R. Kaufman, J. De Calisto, N. L. Simmons, A. N. Cruz, E. J. Villablanca, J. R. Mora, and D. H. Barouch (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 1877-1883
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Specializations of Intestinal Dendritic Cell and Macrophage Subsets That Control Th17 and Regulatory T Cell Responses Are Dependent on the T Cell/APC Ratio, Source of Mouse Strain, and Regional Localization.
T. L. Denning, B. A. Norris, O. Medina-Contreras, S. Manicassamy, D. Geem, R. Madan, C. L. Karp, and B. Pulendran (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 733-747
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MyD88-Dependent TLR1/2 Signals Educate Dendritic Cells with Gut-Specific Imprinting Properties.
S. Wang, E. J. Villablanca, J. De Calisto, D. C. O. Gomes, D. D. Nguyen, E. Mizoguchi, J. C. Kagan, H.-C. Reinecker, N. Hacohen, C. Nagler, et al. (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 141-150
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IFN-{gamma} Secreted by CD103+ Dendritic Cells Leads to IgG Generation in the Mesenteric Lymph Node in the Absence of Vitamin A.
J.-H. Chang, H.-R. Cha, S.-Y. Chang, H.-J. Ko, S.-U. Seo, and M.-N. Kweon (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 6999-7005
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoic Acid and {alpha}-Galactosylceramide Differentially Regulate B Cell Activation In Vitro and Augment Antibody Production In Vivo.
Q. Chen, K. L. Mosovsky, and A. C. Ross (2011)
Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 18, 1015-1020
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A New Subset of CD103+CD8{alpha}+ Dendritic Cells in the Small Intestine Expresses TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and Induces Th1 Response and CTL Activity.
K. Fujimoto, T. Karuppuchamy, N. Takemura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Machida, Y. Haseda, T. Aoshi, K. J. Ishii, S. Akira, and S. Uematsu (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 6287-6295
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CD1d and CD1c Expression in Human B Cells Is Regulated by Activation and Retinoic Acid Receptor Signaling.
L. L. Allan, A. M. Stax, D.-J. Zheng, B. K. Chung, F. K. Kozak, R. Tan, and P. van den Elzen (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 5261-5272
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prostaglandin E2 suppresses the differentiation of retinoic acid-producing dendritic cells in mice and humans.
A. Stock, S. Booth, and V. Cerundolo (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 761-773
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epithelial crosstalk at the microbiota-mucosal interface.
J. M. Wells, O. Rossi, M. Meijerink, and P. van Baarlen (2011)
PNAS 108, 4607-4614
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression of Retinaldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes in Mucosal Dendritic Cells and Gut-Draining Lymph Node Stromal Cells Is Controlled by Dietary Vitamin A.
R. Molenaar, M. Knippenberg, G. Goverse, B. J. Olivier, A. F. de Vos, T. O'Toole, and R. E. Mebius (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 1934-1942
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vitamin A-dependent transcriptional activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) is critical for the development and survival of B1 cells.
M. Maruya, K. Suzuki, H. Fujimoto, M. Miyajima, O. Kanagawa, T. Wakayama, and S. Fagarasan (2011)
PNAS 108, 722-727
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Generation of Mucosal Dendritic Cells from Bone Marrow Reveals a Critical Role of Retinoic Acid.
T. Feng, Y. Cong, H. Qin, E. N. Benveniste, and C. O. Elson (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 5915-5925
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vitamin A as a Regulator of Antigen Presenting Cells.
D. M. Duriancik, D. E. Lackey, and K. A. Hoag (2010)
J. Nutr. 140, 1395-1399
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Downregulation of Th17 Cells in the Small Intestine by Disruption of Gut Flora in the Absence of Retinoic Acid.
H.-R. Cha, S.-Y. Chang, J.-H. Chang, J.-O. Kim, J.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Kim, and M.-N. Kweon (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 6799-6806
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoic Acid Determines the Precise Tissue Tropism of Inflammatory Th17 Cells in the Intestine.
C. Wang, S. G. Kang, H. HogenEsch, P. E. Love, and C. H. Kim (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 5519-5526
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gut CD103+ dendritic cells express indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase which influences T regulatory/T effector cell balance and oral tolerance induction.
G. Matteoli, E. Mazzini, I. D. Iliev, E. Mileti, F. Fallarino, P. Puccetti, M. Chieppa, and M. Rescigno (2010)
Gut 59, 595-604
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Indigenous opportunistic bacteria inhabit mammalian gut-associated lymphoid tissues and share a mucosal antibody-mediated symbiosis.
T. Obata, Y. Goto, J. Kunisawa, S. Sato, M. Sakamoto, H. Setoyama, T. Matsuki, K. Nonaka, N. Shibata, M. Gohda, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 7419-7424
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Requirement for Runx Proteins in IgA Class Switching Acting Downstream of TGF-{beta}1 and Retinoic Acid Signaling.
K. Watanabe, M. Sugai, Y. Nambu, M. Osato, T. Hayashi, M. Kawaguchi, T. Komori, Y. Ito, and A. Shimizu (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 2785-2792
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Enteric Flora Expands Gut Lamina Propria CX3CR1+ Dendritic Cells Supporting Inflammatory Immune Responses under Normal and Inflammatory Conditions.
J. H. Niess and G. Adler (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 2026-2037
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Development of Immunoglobulin M Memory to Both a T-Cell-Independent and a T-Cell-Dependent Antigen following Infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh.
E. A. Kendall, A. A. Tarique, A. Hossain, M. M. Alam, M. Arifuzzaman, N. Akhtar, F. Chowdhury, A. I. Khan, R. C. LaRocque, J. B. Harris, et al. (2010)
Infect. Immun. 78, 253-259
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A dominant, coordinated T regulatory cell-IgA response to the intestinal microbiota.
Y. Cong, T. Feng, K. Fujihashi, T. R. Schoeb, and C. O. Elson (2009)
PNAS 106, 19256-19261
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lymph Node Stromal Cells Support Dendritic Cell-Induced Gut-Homing of T Cells.
R. Molenaar, M. Greuter, A. P. J. van der Marel, R. Roozendaal, S. F. Martin, F. Edele, J. Huehn, R. Forster, T. O'Toole, W. Jansen, et al. (2009)
J. Immunol. 183, 6395-6402
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human intestinal epithelial cells promote the differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells.
I D Iliev, I Spadoni, E Mileti, G Matteoli, A Sonzogni, G M Sampietro, D Foschi, F Caprioli, G Viale, and M Rescigno (2009)
Gut 58, 1481-1489
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Toll-Like Receptor 3 Ligand and Retinoic Acid Enhance Germinal Center Formation and Increase the Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Response.
Y. Ma and A. C. Ross (2009)
Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16, 1476-1484
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Alveolar Macrophages and Lung Dendritic Cells Sense RNA and Drive Mucosal IgA Responses.
J. Bessa, A. Jegerlehner, H. J. Hinton, P. Pumpens, P. Saudan, P. Schneider, and M. F. Bachmann (2009)
J. Immunol. 183, 3788-3799
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human CD14+ Macrophages in Intestinal Lamina Propria Exhibit Potent Antigen-Presenting Ability.
N. Kamada, T. Hisamatsu, H. Honda, T. Kobayashi, H. Chinen, M. T. Kitazume, T. Takayama, S. Okamoto, K. Koganei, A. Sugita, et al. (2009)
J. Immunol. 183, 1724-1731
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Isotretinoin and intestinal inflammation: what gastroenterologists need to know.
M. Shale, G. G Kaplan, R. Panaccione, and S. Ghosh (2009)
Gut 58, 737-741
   Full Text »    PDF »
Maintenance of Peripheral Tolerance through Controlled Tissue Homing of Antigen-Specific T Cells in K14-mOVA Mice.
T. Bianchi, L. B. Pincus, M.-A. Wurbel, B. E. Rich, T. S. Kupper, R. C. Fuhlbrigge, and M. Boes (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 4665-4674
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GM-CSF and IL-4 synergistically trigger dendritic cells to acquire retinoic acid-producing capacity.
A. Yokota, H. Takeuchi, N. Maeda, Y. Ohoka, C. Kato, S.-Y. Song, and M. Iwata (2009)
Int. Immunol. 21, 361-377
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Contrasting roles for all-trans retinoic acid in TGF-{beta}-mediated induction of Foxp3 and Il10 genes in developing regulatory T cells.
C. L. Maynard, R. D. Hatton, W. S. Helms, J. R. Oliver, C. B. Stephensen, and C. T. Weaver (2009)
J. Exp. Med. 206, 343-357
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human IgA-Inducing Protein from Dendritic Cells Induces IgA Production by Naive IgD+ B Cells.
M. A. Endsley, L. M. Njongmeta, E. Shell, M. W. Ryan, A. J. Indrikovs, S. Ulualp, R. M. Goldblum, W. Mwangi, and D. M. Estes (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 1854-1859
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Surprising Discovery That TGF{beta} Specifically Induces the IgA Class Switch.
J. Stavnezer and J. Kang (2009)
J. Immunol. 182, 5-7
   Full Text »    PDF »
CD8+CD205+ Splenic Dendritic Cells Are Specialized to Induce Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells.
S. Yamazaki, D. Dudziak, G. F. Heidkamp, C. Fiorese, A. J. Bonito, K. Inaba, M. C. Nussenzweig, and R. M. Steinman (2008)
J. Immunol. 181, 6923-6933
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
"Vitamin hypothesis": explanation for allergy increase?.
S. C. Bischoff (2008)
Blood 112, 3535-3536
   Full Text »    PDF »
Human basophils activated by mast cell-derived IL-3 express retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-II and produce the immunoregulatory mediator retinoic acid.
N. Spiegl, S. Didichenko, P. McCaffery, H. Langen, and C. A. Dahinden (2008)
Blood 112, 3762-3771
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nuclear receptor signalling in dendritic cells connects lipids, the genome and immune function.
I. Szatmari and L. Nagy (2008)
EMBO J. 27, 2353-2362
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Selected natural and synthetic retinoids impair CCR7- and CXCR4-dependent cell migration in vitro and in vivo.
E. J. Villablanca, D. Zhou, B. Valentinis, A. Negro, L. Raccosta, L. Mauri, A. Prinetti, S. Sonnino, C. Bordignon, C. Traversari, et al. (2008)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 84, 871-879
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Small intestinal CD103+ dendritic cells display unique functional properties that are conserved between mice and humans.
E. Jaensson, H. Uronen-Hansson, O. Pabst, B. Eksteen, J. Tian, J. L. Coombes, P.-L. Berg, T. Davidsson, F. Powrie, B. Johansson-Lindbom, et al. (2008)
J. Exp. Med. 205, 2139-2149
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Discriminating gene expression profiles of memory B cell subpopulations.
G. R.A. Ehrhardt, A. Hijikata, H. Kitamura, O. Ohara, J.-Y. Wang, and M. D. Cooper (2008)
J. Exp. Med. 205, 1807-1817
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stromal Cells Confer Lymph Node-Specific Properties by Shaping a Unique Microenvironment Influencing Local Immune Responses.
M. Ahrendt, S. I. Hammerschmidt, O. Pabst, R. Pabst, and U. Bode (2008)
J. Immunol. 181, 1898-1907
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Enhances Commensal-Induced Antibody Responses and Protects against Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Colitis.
L. Harrington, C. V. Srikanth, R. Antony, S. J. Rhee, A. L. Mellor, H. N. Shi, and B. J. Cherayil (2008)
Infect. Immun. 76, 3045-3053
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nonmucosal Alphavirus Vaccination Stimulates a Mucosal Inductive Environment in the Peripheral Draining Lymph Node.
J. M. Thompson, M. G. Nicholson, A. C. Whitmore, M. Zamora, A. West, A. Iwasaki, H. F. Staats, and R. E. Johnston (2008)
J. Immunol. 181, 574-585
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Immunology of the gut and liver: a love/hate relationship.
D H Adams, B Eksteen, and S M Curbishley (2008)
Gut 57, 838-848
   Full Text »    PDF »
CCL25 and CCL28 promote {alpha}4{beta}7-integrin-dependent adhesion of lymphocytes to MAdCAM-1 under shear flow.
A. Miles, E. Liaskou, B. Eksteen, P. F. Lalor, and D. H. Adams (2008)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294, G1257-G1267
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent trafficking of peritoneal B cells requires functional NF{kappa}B-inducing kinase in stromal cells.
J. Kunisawa, M. Gohda, Y. Kurashima, I. Ishikawa, M. Higuchi, and H. Kiyono (2008)
Blood 111, 4646-4652
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Regulates the Egress of IgA Plasmablasts from Peyer's Patches for Intestinal IgA Responses.
M. Gohda, J. Kunisawa, F. Miura, Y. Kagiyama, Y. Kurashima, M. Higuchi, I. Ishikawa, I. Ogahara, and H. Kiyono (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 5335-5343
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cutting Edge: Langerin+ Dendritic Cells in the Mesenteric Lymph Node Set the Stage for Skin and Gut Immune System Cross-Talk.
S.-Y. Chang, H.-R. Cha, O. Igarashi, P. D. Rennert, A. Kissenpfennig, B. Malissen, M. Nanno, H. Kiyono, and M.-N. Kweon (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 4361-4365
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Fish Oil Consumption Modulates Immunoglobulin Responses to and Clearance of Enteric Reovirus Infection in Mice.
E. Beli, M. Li, C. Cuff, and J. J. Pestka (2008)
J. Nutr. 138, 813-819
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute-phase proteins.
T. E. Weber, C. J. Ziemer, and B. J. Kerr (2008)
J Anim Sci 86, 871-881
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Broad dispersion and lung localization of virus-specific memory B cells induced by influenza pneumonia.
H. M. Joo, Y. He, and M. Y. Sangster (2008)
PNAS 105, 3485-3490
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Induces CCR10 Expression in Terminally Differentiating Human B Cells.
A.-K. Shirakawa, D. Nagakubo, K. Hieshima, T. Nakayama, Z. Jin, and O. Yoshie (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 2786-2795
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Organ-derived dendritic cells have differential effects on alloreactive T cells.
T. D. Kim, T. H. Terwey, J. L. Zakrzewski, D. Suh, A. A. Kochman, M. E. Chen, C. G. King, C. Borsotti, J. Grubin, O. M. Smith, et al. (2008)
Blood 111, 2929-2940
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Colonic Patches Direct the Cross-Talk Between Systemic Compartments and Large Intestine Independently of Innate Immunity.
S.-Y. Chang, H.-R. Cha, S. Uematsu, S. Akira, O. Igarashi, H. Kiyono, and M.-N. Kweon (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 1609-1618
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoic acid inhibits Th17 polarization and enhances FoxP3 expression through a Stat-3/Stat-5 independent signaling pathway.
K. M. Elias, A. Laurence, T. S. Davidson, G. Stephens, Y. Kanno, E. M. Shevach, and J. J. O'Shea (2008)
Blood 111, 1013-1020
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinoids Accelerate B Lineage Lymphoid Differentiation.
X. Chen, B. L. Esplin, K. P. Garrett, R. S. Welner, C. F. Webb, and P. W. Kincade (2008)
J. Immunol. 180, 138-145
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinol Combined with Retinoic Acid Increases Retinol Uptake and Esterification in the Lungs of Young Adult Rats when Delivered by the Intramuscular as well as Oral Routes.
A. C. Ross and N.-q. Li (2007)
J. Nutr. 137, 2371-2376
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lymphoma dissemination: the other face of lymphocyte homing.
S. T. Pals, D. J. J. de Gorter, and M. Spaargaren (2007)
Blood 110, 3102-3111
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The yin and yang of intestinal epithelial cells in controlling dendritic cell function.
I. D. Iliev, G. Matteoli, and M. Rescigno (2007)
J. Exp. Med. 204, 2253-2257
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
In Vitro Induction of Mucosa-Type Dendritic Cells by All-Trans Retinoic Acid.
L. Saurer, K. C. McCullough, and A. Summerfield (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 3504-3514
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vitamin A Metabolites Induce Gut-Homing FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells.
S. G. Kang, H. W. Lim, O. M. Andrisani, H. E. Broxmeyer, and C. H. Kim (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 3724-3733
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Th2 Differentiation in Distinct Lymph Nodes Influences the Site of Mucosal Th2 Immune-Inflammatory Responses.
D. Alvarez, J. L. Arkinson, J. Sun, R. Fattouh, T. Walker, and M. Jordana (2007)
J. Immunol. 179, 3287-3296
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Small intestine lamina propria dendritic cells promote de novo generation of Foxp3 T reg cells via retinoic acid.
C.-M. Sun, J. A. Hall, R. B. Blank, N. Bouladoux, M. Oukka, J. R. Mora, and Y. Belkaid (2007)
J. Exp. Med. 204, 1775-1785
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882