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Science 314 (5804): 1410-1411

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Brassinosteroid Signaling: A Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Signaling from the Cell Surface

Youssef Belkhadir, and Joanne Chory*

Abstract: Plants use the coordinated action of several small-molecule hormones to grow and develop optimally in response to a changing environment. Among these hormones are the brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants. BRs bind a small family of leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases at the cell surface, thereby initiating an intracellular signal transduction cascade that results in the altered expression of hundreds of genes.

Plant Biology Laboratory and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: chory{at}

The 2012 Genetics Society of America Medal: Joanne Chory.
B. Bartel (2012)
Genetics 191, 297-298
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Direct interaction of ligand-receptor pairs specifying stomatal patterning.
J. S. Lee, T. Kuroha, M. Hnilova, D. Khatayevich, M. M. Kanaoka, J. M. McAbee, M. Sarikaya, C. Tamerler, and K. U. Torii (2012)
Genes & Dev. 26, 126-136
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Brassinosteroids modulate the efficiency of plant immune responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns.
Y. Belkhadir, Y. Jaillais, P. Epple, E. Balsemao-Pires, J. L. Dangl, and J. Chory (2012)
PNAS 109, 297-302
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Extracellular leucine-rich repeats as a platform for receptor/coreceptor complex formation.
Y. Jaillais, Y. Belkhadir, E. Balsemao-Pires, J. L. Dangl, and J. Chory (2011)
PNAS 108, 8503-8507
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Brassinosteroid Signal Transduction: From Receptor Kinase Activation to Transcriptional Networks Regulating Plant Development.
S. D. Clouse (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 1219-1230
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CESTA, a positive regulator of brassinosteroid biosynthesis.
B. Poppenberger, W. Rozhon, M. Khan, S. Husar, G. Adam, C. Luschnig, S. Fujioka, and T. Sieberer (2011)
EMBO J. 30, 1149-1161
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The walls have ears: the role of plant CrRLK1Ls in sensing and transducing extracellular signals.
A. Boisson-Dernier, S. A. Kessler, and U. Grossniklaus (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 1581-1591
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Tyrosine phosphorylation controls brassinosteroid receptor activation by triggering membrane release of its kinase inhibitor.
Y. Jaillais, M. Hothorn, Y. Belkhadir, T. Dabi, Z. L. Nimchuk, E. M. Meyerowitz, and J. Chory (2011)
Genes & Dev. 25, 232-237
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BAK1 regulates the accumulation of jasmonic acid and the levels of trypsin proteinase inhibitors in Nicotiana attenuata's responses to herbivory.
D.-H. Yang, C. Hettenhausen, I. T. Baldwin, and J. Wu (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 641-652
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Signaling from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Activates Brassinosteroid Signaling and Promotes Acclimation to Stress in Arabidopsis.
P. Che, J. D. Bussell, W. Zhou, G. M. Estavillo, B. J. Pogson, and S. M. Smith (2010)
Science Signaling 3, ra69
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Intragenic Suppression of a Trafficking-Defective Brassinosteroid Receptor Mutant in Arabidopsis.
Y. Belkhadir, A. Durbak, M. Wierzba, R. J. Schmitz, A. Aguirre, R. Michel, S. Rowe, S. Fujioka, and F. E. Tax (2010)
Genetics 185, 1283-1296
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Arabidopsis thaliana Pattern Recognition Receptors for Bacterial Elongation Factor Tu and Flagellin Can Be Combined to Form Functional Chimeric Receptors.
M. Albert, A. K. Jehle, K. Mueller, C. Eisele, M. Lipschis, and G. Felix (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 19035-19042
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The Sterol Methyltransferases SMT1, SMT2, and SMT3 Influence Arabidopsis Development through Nonbrassinosteroid Products.
F. Carland, S. Fujioka, and T. Nelson (2010)
Plant Physiology 153, 741-756
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Plant Phosphatidylcholine-Hydrolyzing Phospholipases C NPC3 and NPC4 with Roles in Root Development and Brassinolide Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.
R. Wimalasekera, P. Pejchar, A. Holk, J. Martinec, and G. F. E. Scherer (2010)
Mol Plant 3, 610-625
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Proteomics of Plasma Membranes from Poplar Trees Reveals Tissue Distribution of Transporters, Receptors, and Proteins in Cell Wall Formation.
R. Nilsson, K. Bernfur, N. Gustavsson, J. Bygdell, G. Wingsle, and C. Larsson (2010)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 9, 368-387
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A Leaky Mutation in DWARF4 Reveals an Antagonistic Role of Brassinosteroid in the Inhibition of Root Growth by Jasmonate in Arabidopsis.
C. Ren, C. Han, W. Peng, Y. Huang, Z. Peng, X. Xiong, Q. Zhu, B. Gao, and D. Xie (2009)
Plant Physiology 151, 1412-1420
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BRASSINOSTEROID UPREGULATED1, Encoding a Helix-Loop-Helix Protein, Is a Novel Gene Involved in Brassinosteroid Signaling and Controls Bending of the Lamina Joint in Rice.
A. Tanaka, H. Nakagawa, C. Tomita, Z. Shimatani, M. Ohtake, T. Nomura, C.-J. Jiang, J. G. Dubouzet, S. Kikuchi, H. Sekimoto, et al. (2009)
Plant Physiology 151, 669-680
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Reactive Oxygen Species Are Involved in Brassinosteroid-Induced Stress Tolerance in Cucumber.
X.-J. Xia, Y.-J. Wang, Y.-H. Zhou, Y. Tao, W.-H. Mao, K. Shi, T. Asami, Z. Chen, and J.-Q. Yu (2009)
Plant Physiology 150, 801-814
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Three related receptor-like kinases are required for optimal cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
H. Guo, L. Li, H. Ye, X. Yu, A. Algreen, and Y. Yin (2009)
PNAS 106, 7648-7653
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Rapid signaling by steroid receptors.
E. R. Levin (2008)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 295, R1425-R1430
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Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Phytohormone Biosynthesis and Signaling Genes in Microspore/Pollen and Tapetum of Rice.
K. Hirano, K. Aya, T. Hobo, H. Sakakibara, M. Kojima, R. A. Shim, Y. Hasegawa, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, and M. Matsuoka (2008)
Plant Cell Physiol. 49, 1429-1450
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Modulation of brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression by jumonji domain-containing proteins ELF6 and REF6 in Arabidopsis.
X. Yu, L. Li, L. Li, M. Guo, J. Chory, and Y. Yin (2008)
PNAS 105, 7618-7623
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The Outlook for Protein Engineering in Crop Improvement.
A. G. Rao (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 6-12
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Brassinosteroid transport.
G. M. Symons, J. J. Ross, C. E. Jager, and J. B. Reid (2008)
J. Exp. Bot. 59, 17-24
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Signalling through kinase-defective domains: the prevalence of atypical receptor-like kinases in plants.
E. Castells and J. M. Casacuberta (2007)
J. Exp. Bot.
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Identification and Mutational Analysis of Arabidopsis FLS2 Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain Residues That Contribute to Flagellin Perception.
F. M. Dunning, W. Sun, K. L. Jansen, L. Helft, and A. F. Bent (2007)
PLANT CELL 19, 3297-3313
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The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is a central regulator of innate immunity in plants.
A. Heese, D. R. Hann, S. Gimenez-Ibanez, A. M. E. Jones, K. He, J. Li, J. I. Schroeder, S. C. Peck, and J. P. Rathjen (2007)
PNAS 104, 12217-12222
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Endosomal signaling of plant steroid receptor kinase BRI1.
N. Geldner, D. L. Hyman, X. Wang, K. Schumacher, and J. Chory (2007)
Genes & Dev. 21, 1598-1602
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