Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 315 (5814): 1000-1003

Copyright © 2007 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

The Phosphothreonine Lyase Activity of a Bacterial Type III Effector Family

Hongtao Li,* Hao Xu,* Yan Zhou,* Jie Zhang, Chengzu Long, Shuqin Li, She Chen, Jian-Min Zhou, Feng Shao{dagger}

Abstract: Pathogenic bacteria use the type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into host cells to modulate the host signaling pathways. In this study, the Shigella type III effector OspF was shown to inactivate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) [extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38]. OspF irreversibly removed phosphate groups from the phosphothreonine but not from the phosphotyrosine residue in the activation loop of MAPKs. Mass spectrometry revealed a mass loss of 98 daltons in p-Erk2, due to the abstraction of the {alpha} proton concomitant with cleavage of the C-OP bond in the phosphothreonine residue. This unexpected enzymatic activity, termed phosphothreonine lyase, appeared specific for MAPKs and was shared by other OspF family members.

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, 102206, China.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: shaofeng{at}

Recent Advances in Understanding Enteric Pathogenic Escherichia coli.
M. A. Croxen, R. J. Law, R. Scholz, K. M. Keeney, M. Wlodarska, and B. B. Finlay (2013)
Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 26, 822-880
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Systems-Level Overview of Host Protein Phosphorylation During Shigella flexneri Infection Revealed by Phosphoproteomics.
C. Schmutz, E. Ahrne, C. A. Kasper, T. Tschon, I. Sorg, R. F. Dreier, A. Schmidt, and C. Arrieumerlou (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 2952-2968
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells.
N. Carayol and G. Tran Van Nhieu (2013)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 3, a016717
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of the ospZ Promoter in Shigella flexneri and Its Regulation by VirB and H-NS.
D. W. Basta, K. L. Pew, J. A. Immak, H. S. Park, M. A. Picker, A. F. Wigley, C. T. Hensley, J. S. Pearson, E. L. Hartland, and H. J. Wing (2013)
J. Bacteriol. 195, 2562-2572
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Global Impact of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-secreted Effectors on the Host Phosphoproteome.
K. Imami, A. P. Bhavsar, H. Yu, N. F. Brown, L. D. Rogers, B. B. Finlay, and L. J. Foster (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 1632-1643
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bacterial Subversion of Host Innate Immune Pathways.
L. A. Baxt, A. C. Garza-Mayers, and M. B. Goldberg (2013)
Science 340, 697-701
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epigenetics and Bacterial Infections.
H. Bierne, M. Hamon, and P. Cossart (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2, a010272
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Subversion of Cell Signaling by Pathogens.
N. M. Alto and K. Orth (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a006114
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MEK genomics in development and disease.
J. L. Bromberg-White, N. J. Andersen, and N. S. Duesbery (2012)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 11, 300-310
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functions of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) type III secretion system effectors.
R. Figueira and D. W. Holden (2012)
Microbiology 158, 1147-1161
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Host-pathogen interactions: Manipulation of kinase signaling by bacterial pathogens.
A. M. Krachler, A. R. Woolery, and K. Orth (2011)
J. Cell Biol. 195, 1083-1092
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chromatin Configuration as a Battlefield in Plant-Bacteria Interactions.
K.-W. Ma, C. Flores, and W. Ma (2011)
Plant Physiology 157, 535-543
   Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Analysis of the Type 3 Effector Nodulation Outer Protein L (NopL) from Rhizobium sp. NGR234: SYMBIOTIC EFFECTS, PHOSPHORYLATION, AND INTERFERENCE WITH MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE SIGNALING.
L. Zhang, X.-J. Chen, H.-B. Lu, Z.-P. Xie, and C. Staehelin (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 32178-32187
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bacterial Scaffolds Assemble Novel Higher-Order Complexes to Reengineer Eukaryotic Cell Processes.
C. F. Lesser and J. M. Leong (2011)
Science Signaling 4, pe32
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A bacterial effector targets host DH-PH domain RhoGEFs and antagonizes macrophage phagocytosis.
N. Dong, L. Liu, and F. Shao (2010)
EMBO J. 29, 1363-1376
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bordetella evades the host immune system by inducing IL-10 through a type III effector, BopN.
K. Nagamatsu, A. Kuwae, T. Konaka, S. Nagai, S. Yoshida, M. Eguchi, M. Watanabe, H. Mimuro, S. Koyasu, and A. Abe (2009)
J. Exp. Med. 206, 3073-3088
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Helicobacter pylori Induces MAPK Phosphorylation and AP-1 Activation via a NOD1-Dependent Mechanism.
C. C. Allison, T. A. Kufer, E. Kremmer, M. Kaparakis, and R. L. Ferrero (2009)
J. Immunol. 183, 8099-8109
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Legionella type IV effector activates the NF-{kappa}B pathway by phosphorylating the I{kappa}B family of inhibitors.
J. Ge, H. Xu, T. Li, Y. Zhou, Z. Zhang, S. Li, L. Liu, and F. Shao (2009)
PNAS 106, 13725-13730
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Innate Immunity in Plants: An Arms Race Between Pattern Recognition Receptors in Plants and Effectors in Microbial Pathogens.
T. Boller and S. Y. He (2009)
Science 324, 742-744
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A bacterial type III effector family uses the papain-like hydrolytic activity to arrest the host cell cycle.
Q. Yao, J. Cui, Y. Zhu, G. Wang, L. Hu, C. Long, R. Cao, X. Liu, N. Huang, S. Chen, et al. (2009)
PNAS 106, 3716-3721
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 Are Required for Full Priming of Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.
G. J.M. Beckers, M. Jaskiewicz, Y. Liu, W. R. Underwood, S. Y. He, S. Zhang, and U. Conrath (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 944-953
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Host-Directed Drug Targeting of Factors Hijacked by Pathogens.
A. Schwegmann and F. Brombacher (2008)
Science Signaling 1, re8
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Virulent Shigella flexneri subverts the host innate immune response through manipulation of antimicrobial peptide gene expression.
B. Sperandio, B. Regnault, J. Guo, Z. Zhang, S. L. Stanley Jr., P. J. Sansonetti, and T. Pedron (2008)
J. Exp. Med. 205, 1121-1132
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Saccharomyces boulardii interferes with Shigella pathogenesis by postinvasion signaling events.
K. L. Mumy, X. Chen, C. P. Kelly, and B. A. McCormick (2008)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294, G599-G609
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Pathogenesis of Shigella spp.: Controlling Host Cell Signaling, Invasion, and Death by Type III Secretion.
G. N. Schroeder and H. Hilbi (2008)
Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21, 134-156
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The NleE/OspZ Family of Effector Proteins Is Required for Polymorphonuclear Transepithelial Migration, a Characteristic Shared by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri Infections.
D. V. Zurawski, K. L. Mumy, L. Badea, J. A. Prentice, E. L. Hartland, B. A. McCormick, and A. T. Maurelli (2008)
Infect. Immun. 76, 369-379
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882