Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 316 (5825): 715-719

Copyright © 2007 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Signals from Chloroplasts Converge to Regulate Nuclear Gene Expression

Shai Koussevitzky,1,2,3* Ajit Nott,1,2* Todd C. Mockler,2{dagger} Fangxin Hong,1,2{ddagger} Gilberto Sachetto-Martins,2§ Marci Surpin,2|| Jason Lim,1,2 Ron Mittler,3,4 Joanne Chory1,2

Abstract: Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling coordinates nuclear gene expression with chloroplast function and is essential for the photoautotrophic life-style of plants. Three retrograde signals have been described, but little is known of their signaling pathways. We show here that GUN1, a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, and ABI4, an Apetala 2 (AP2)–type transcription factor, are common to all three pathways. ABI4 binds the promoter of a retrograde-regulated gene through a conserved motif found in close proximity to a light-regulatory element. We propose a model in which multiple indicators of aberrant plastid function in Arabidopsis are integrated upstream of GUN1 within plastids, which leads to ABI4-mediated repression of nuclear-encoded genes.

1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
2 Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
3 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Mail Stop 200, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
4 Department of Plant Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} Present address: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

{ddagger} Present address: Department of Biostatistics, Division of Information Sciences, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, 1500 Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

§ Present address: Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68011, 21941–970, Brazil.

|| Present address: Center for Plant Cell Biology, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: chory{at}

The Translational Apparatus of Plastids and Its Role in Plant Development.
N. Tiller and R. Bock (2014)
Mol Plant
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Chloroplast Retrograde Signal Regulates Nuclear Alternative Splicing.
E. Petrillo, M. A. G. Herz, A. Fuchs, D. Reifer, J. Fuller, M. J. Yanovsky, C. Simpson, J. W. S. Brown, A. Barta, M. Kalyna, et al. (2014)
   Abstract »
The essential role of sugar metabolism in the acclimation response of Arabidopsis thaliana to high light intensities.
J. Schmitz, L. Heinrichs, F. Scossa, A. R. Fernie, M.-L. Oelze, K.-J. Dietz, M. Rothbart, B. Grimm, U.-I. Flugge, and R. E. Hausler (2014)
J. Exp. Bot. 65, 1619-1636
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis ANGULATA10 is required for thylakoid biogenesis and mesophyll development.
R. Casanova-Saez, E. Mateo-Bonmati, S. Kangasjarvi, H. Candela, and J. L. Micol (2014)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The functions of WHIRLY1 and REDOX-RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 in cross tolerance responses in plants: a hypothesis.
C. H. Foyer, B. Karpinska, and K. Krupinska (2014)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130226
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interaction between plastid and mitochondrial retrograde signalling pathways during changes to plastid redox status.
N. E. Blanco, M. Guinea-Diaz, J. Whelan, and A. Strand (2014)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130231
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Influence of plastids on light signalling and development.
R. M. Larkin (2014)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130232
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis thaliana RNA Editing Factor SLO2, which Affects the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain, Participates in Multiple Stress and Hormone Responses.
Q. Zhu, J. Dugardeyn, C. Zhang, P. Muhlenbock, P. J. Eastmond, R. Valcke, B. De Coninck, S. Oden, M. Karampelias, B. P. A. Cammue, et al. (2014)
Mol Plant 7, 290-310
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of Evolutionarily Conserved Motifs Involved in Activity and Regulation of the ABA-INSENSITIVE (ABI) 4 Transcription Factor.
J. Gregorio, A. F. Hernandez-Bernal, E. Cordoba, and P. Leon (2014)
Mol Plant 7, 422-436
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Suppression of the External Mitochondrial NADPH Dehydrogenase, NDB1, in Arabidopsis thaliana Affects Central Metabolism and Vegetative Growth.
S. V. Wallstrom, I. Florez-Sarasa, W. L. Araujo, M. Aidemark, M. Fernandez-Fernandez, A. R. Fernie, M. Ribas-Carbo, and A. G. Rasmusson (2014)
Mol Plant 7, 356-368
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
1O2-Mediated and EXECUTER-Dependent Retrograde Plastid-to-Nucleus Signaling in Norflurazon-Treated Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana.
C. Kim and K. Apel (2013)
Mol Plant 6, 1580-1591
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Membrane-Bound NAC Transcription Factor ANAC013 Functions in Mitochondrial Retrograde Regulation of the Oxidative Stress Response in Arabidopsis.
I. De Clercq, V. Vermeirssen, O. Van Aken, K. Vandepoele, M. W. Murcha, S. R. Law, A. Inze, S. Ng, A. Ivanova, D. Rombaut, et al. (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 3472-3490
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AtWRKY40 and AtWRKY63 Modulate the Expression of Stress-Responsive Nuclear Genes Encoding Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Proteins.
O. Van Aken, B. Zhang, S. Law, R. Narsai, and J. Whelan (2013)
Plant Physiology 162, 254-271
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retrograde bilin signaling enables Chlamydomonas greening and phototrophic survival.
D. Duanmu, D. Casero, R. M. Dent, S. Gallaher, W. Yang, N. C. Rockwell, S. S. Martin, M. Pellegrini, K. K. Niyogi, S. S. Merchant, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 3621-3626
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circadian clock adjustment to plant iron status depends on chloroplast and phytochrome function.
P. A. Salome, M. Oliva, D. Weigel, and U. Kramer (2013)
EMBO J. 32, 511-523
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cyclin-dependent Kinase E1 (CDKE1) Provides a Cellular Switch in Plants between Growth and Stress Responses.
S. Ng, E. Giraud, O. Duncan, S. R. Law, Y. Wang, L. Xu, R. Narsai, C. Carrie, H. Walker, D. A. Day, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 3449-3459
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Changes in mRNA Stability Associated with Cold Stress in Arabidopsis Cells.
Y. Chiba, K. Mineta, M. Y. Hirai, Y. Suzuki, S. Kanaya, H. Takahashi, H. Onouchi, J. Yamaguchi, and S. Naito (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 180-194
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AtWRKY15 perturbation abolishes the mitochondrial stress response that steers osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
S. Vanderauwera, K. Vandenbroucke, A. Inze, B. van de Cotte, P. Muhlenbock, R. De Rycke, N. Naouar, T. Van Gaever, M. C. E. Van Montagu, and F. Van Breusegem (2012)
PNAS 109, 20113-20118
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis Plastid AMOS1/EGY1 Integrates Abscisic Acid Signaling to Regulate Global Gene Expression Response to Ammonium Stress.
B. Li, Q. Li, L. Xiong, H. J. Kronzucker, U. Kramer, and W. Shi (2012)
Plant Physiology 160, 2040-2051
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retrograde Signaling and Photoprotection in a gun4 Mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
C. Formighieri, M. Ceol, G. Bonente, J.-D. Rochaix, and R. Bassi (2012)
Mol Plant 5, 1242-1262
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The MORPH Algorithm: Ranking Candidate Genes for Membership in Arabidopsis and Tomato Pathways.
O. Tzfadia, D. Amar, L. M. T. Bradbury, E. T. Wurtzel, and R. Shamir (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 4389-4406
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Binding of ABI4 to a CACCG motif mediates the ABA-induced expression of the ZmSSI gene in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm.
Y.-F. Hu, Y.-P. Li, J. Zhang, H. Liu, M. Tian, and Y. Huang (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 5979-5989
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PPR8522 encodes a chloroplast-targeted pentatricopeptide repeat protein necessary for maize embryogenesis and vegetative development.
D. Sosso, M. Canut, G. Gendrot, A. Dedieu, P. Chambrier, A. Barkan, G. Consonni, and P. M. Rogowsky (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 5843-5857
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis cpSRP54 regulates carotenoid accumulation in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus.
B. Yu, M. Y. Gruber, G. G. Khachatourians, R. Zhou, D. J. Epp, D. D. Hegedus, I. A. P. Parkin, R. Welsch, and A. Hannoufa (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 5189-5202
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Photosynthetic Adaptation to Length of Day Is Dependent on S-Sulfocysteine Synthase Activity in the Thylakoid Lumen.
M. A. Bermudez, J. Galmes, I. Moreno, P. M. Mullineaux, C. Gotor, and L. C. Romero (2012)
Plant Physiology 160, 274-288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mutations in an Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor-Related Protein Enhance Thermotolerance in the Absence of the Major Molecular Chaperone HSP101.
M. Kim, U. Lee, I. Small, C. C. des Francs-Small, and E. Vierling (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3349-3365
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Coordination of Plastid and Light Signaling Pathways upon Development of Arabidopsis Leaves under Various Photoperiods.
A. Lepisto and E. Rintamaki (2012)
Mol Plant 5, 799-816
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanistic Insight into Pentatricopeptide Repeat Proteins as Sequence-Specific RNA-Binding Proteins for Organellar RNAs in Plants.
T. Nakamura, Y. Yagi, and K. Kobayashi (2012)
Plant Cell Physiol. 53, 1171-1179
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive growth Mutants Reveals the Involvement of the Plastidial Copper Transporter PAA1 in Glucose-Induced Intracellular Signaling.
S. A. Lee, E. K. Yoon, J.-O. Heo, M.-H. Lee, I. Hwang, H. Cheong, W. S. Lee, Y.-s. Hwang, and J. Lim (2012)
Plant Physiology 159, 1001-1012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
In silico analyses of pericycle cell populations reinforce their relation with associated vasculature in Arabidopsis.
B. Parizot, I. Roberts, J. Raes, T. Beeckman, and I. De Smet (2012)
Phil Trans R Soc B 367, 1479-1488
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Purification and Characterization of ZmRIP1, a Novel Reductant-Inhibited Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase from Maize.
B. Li, Y. Zhao, L. Liang, H. Ren, Y. Xing, L. Chen, M. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Han, H. Jia, et al. (2012)
Plant Physiology 159, 671-681
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plastids Are Major Regulators of Light Signaling in Arabidopsis.
M. E. Ruckle, L. D. Burgoon, L. A. Lawrence, C. A. Sinkler, and R. M. Larkin (2012)
Plant Physiology 159, 366-390
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
H2O2-triggered Retrograde Signaling from Chloroplasts to Nucleus Plays Specific Role in Response to Stress.
T. Maruta, M. Noshi, A. Tanouchi, M. Tamoi, Y. Yabuta, K. Yoshimura, T. Ishikawa, and S. Shigeoka (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 11717-11729
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
SCARECROW Has a SHORT-ROOT-Independent Role in Modulating the Sugar Response1.
H. Cui, Y. Hao, and D. Kong (2012)
Plant Physiology 158, 1769-1778
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification and characterization of the RNA binding surface of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein.
K. Kobayashi, M. Kawabata, K. Hisano, T. Kazama, K. Matsuoka, M. Sugita, and T. Nakamura (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 2712-2723
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Photosynthetic control of electron transport and the regulation of gene expression.
C. H. Foyer, J. Neukermans, G. Queval, G. Noctor, and J. Harbinson (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 1637-1661
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Efficient acclimation of the chloroplast antioxidant defence of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in response to a 10- or 100-fold light increment and the possible involvement of retrograde signals.
M.-L. Oelze, M. O. Vogel, K. Alsharafa, U. Kahmann, A. Viehhauser, V. G. Maurino, and K.-J. Dietz (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 1297-1313
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plastid signalling under multiple conditions is accompanied by a common defect in RNA editing in plastids.
T. Kakizaki, F. Yazu, K. Nakayama, Y. Ito-Inaba, and T. Inaba (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 251-260
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Organelle-nucleus cross-talk regulates plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata.
T. M. Burch-Smith, J. O. Brunkard, Y. G. Choi, and P. C. Zambryski (2011)
PNAS 108, E1451-E1460
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
EDL3 is an F-box protein involved in the regulation of abscisic acid signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana.
P. Koops, S. Pelser, M. Ignatz, C. Klose, K. Marrocco-Selden, and T. Kretsch (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 5547-5560
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evidence for a SAL1-PAP Chloroplast Retrograde Pathway That Functions in Drought and High Light Signaling in Arabidopsis.
G. M. Estavillo, P. A. Crisp, W. Pornsiriwong, M. Wirtz, D. Collinge, C. Carrie, E. Giraud, J. Whelan, P. David, H. Javot, et al. (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 3992-4012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plastid Proteome Assembly without Toc159: Photosynthetic Protein Import and Accumulation of N-Acetylated Plastid Precursor Proteins.
S. Bischof, K. Baerenfaller, T. Wildhaber, R. Troesch, P.-A. Vidi, B. Roschitzki, M. Hirsch-Hoffmann, L. Hennig, F. Kessler, W. Gruissem, et al. (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 3911-3928
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis bZIP Gene AtbZIP63 Is a Sensitive Integrator of Transient Abscisic Acid and Glucose Signals.
C. C. Matiolli, J. P. Tomaz, G. T. Duarte, F. M. Prado, L. E. V. Del Bem, A. B. Silveira, L. Gauer, L. G. G. Correa, R. D. Drumond, A. J. C. Viana, et al. (2011)
Plant Physiology 157, 692-705
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid-Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis.
P. I. Kerchev, T. K. Pellny, P. D. Vivancos, G. Kiddle, P. Hedden, S. Driscoll, H. Vanacker, P. Verrier, R. D. Hancock, and C. H. Foyer (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 3319-3334
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nonessential Plastid-Encoded Ribosomal Proteins in Tobacco: A Developmental Role for Plastid Translation and Implications for Reductive Genome Evolution.
T. T. Fleischmann, L. B. Scharff, S. Alkatib, S. Hasdorf, M. A. Schottler, and R. Bock (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 3137-3155
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intracompartmental and Intercompartmental Transcriptional Networks Coordinate the Expression of Genes for Organellar Functions.
D. Leister, X. Wang, G. Haberer, K. F. X. Mayer, and T. Kleine (2011)
Plant Physiology 157, 386-404
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plastid-to-Nucleus Retrograde Signals Are Essential for the Expression of Nuclear Starch Biosynthesis Genes during Amyloplast Differentiation in Tobacco BY-2 Cultured Cells.
K. Enami, T. Ozawa, N. Motohashi, M. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and M. Hanaoka (2011)
Plant Physiology 157, 518-530
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis Mitochondria-Localized Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein PGN Functions in Defense against Necrotrophic Fungi and Abiotic Stress Tolerance.
K. Laluk, S. AbuQamar, and T. Mengiste (2011)
Plant Physiology 156, 2053-2068
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Accumulation of the transcription factor ABA-insensitive (ABI)4 is tightly regulated post-transcriptionally.
R. Finkelstein, T. Lynch, W. Reeves, M. Petitfils, and M. Mostachetti (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 3971-3979
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis Multistress Regulator TSPO Is a Heme Binding Membrane Protein and a Potential Scavenger of Porphyrins via an Autophagy-Dependent Degradation Mechanism.
C. Vanhee, G. Zapotoczny, D. Masquelier, M. Ghislain, and H. Batoko (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 785-805
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Update on Chloroplast Research: New Tools, New Topics, and New Trends.
U. Armbruster, P. Pesaresi, M. Pribil, A. Hertle, and D. Leister (2011)
Mol Plant 4, 1-16
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ascorbate and Glutathione: The Heart of the Redox Hub.
C. H. Foyer and G. Noctor (2011)
Plant Physiology 155, 2-18
   Full Text »    PDF »
Understanding Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Functions to Enhance Photosynthesis.
C. H. Foyer and S. Shigeoka (2011)
Plant Physiology 155, 93-100
   Full Text »    PDF »
An Arabidopsis Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION7, Is Required for FtsH-Mediated Chloroplast Biogenesis.
X. Liu, F. Yu, and S. Rodermel (2010)
Plant Physiology 154, 1588-1601
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Versatile Roles of Plastids in Plant Growth and Development.
T. Inaba and Y. Ito-Inaba (2010)
Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 1847-1853
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Cytoskeleton and the Peroxisomal-Targeted SNOWY COTYLEDON3 Protein Are Required for Chloroplast Development in Arabidopsis.
V. Albrecht, K. Simkova, C. Carrie, E. Delannoy, E. Giraud, J. Whelan, I. D. Small, K. Apel, M. R. Badger, and B. J. Pogson (2010)
PLANT CELL 22, 3423-3438
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis plastid-signalling mutant gun1 (genomes uncoupled1) shows altered sensitivity to sucrose and abscisic acid and alterations in early seedling development.
A. Cottage, E. K. Mott, J. A. Kempster, and J. C. Gray (2010)
J. Exp. Bot. 61, 3773-3786
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Photosynthetic Redox Imbalance Governs Leaf Sectoring in the Arabidopsis thaliana Variegation Mutants immutans, spotty, var1, and var2.
D. Rosso, R. Bode, W. Li, M. Krol, D. Saccon, S. Wang, L. A. Schillaci, S. R. Rodermel, D. P. Maxwell, and N. P.A. Huner (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 3473-3492
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Coordination of Plastid Protein Import and Nuclear Gene Expression by Plastid-to-Nucleus Retrograde Signaling.
T. Kakizaki, H. Matsumura, K. Nakayama, F.-S. Che, R. Terauchi, and T. Inaba (2009)
Plant Physiology 151, 1339-1353
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The making of a chloroplast.
M. T. Waters and J. A. Langdale (2009)
EMBO J. 28, 2861-2873
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Plant NADPH Oxidase RBOHD Mediates Rapid Systemic Signaling in Response to Diverse Stimuli.
G. Miller, K. Schlauch, R. Tam, D. Cortes, M. A. Torres, V. Shulaev, J. L. Dangl, and R. Mittler (2009)
Science Signaling 2, ra45
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional Gene Silencing Mediated by a Plastid Inner Envelope Phosphoenolpyruvate/Phosphate Translocator CUE1 in Arabidopsis.
J. Shen, X. Ren, R. Cao, J. Liu, and Z. Gong (2009)
Plant Physiology 150, 1990-1996
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The High Light Response in Arabidopsis Involves ABA Signaling between Vascular and Bundle Sheath Cells.
G. Galvez-Valdivieso, M. J. Fryer, T. Lawson, K. Slattery, W. Truman, N. Smirnoff, T. Asami, W. J. Davies, A. M. Jones, N. R. Baker, et al. (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 2143-2162
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is a Regulator of Mitochondrial Retrograde Expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a.
E. Giraud, O. Van Aken, L. H.M. Ho, and J. Whelan (2009)
Plant Physiology 150, 1286-1296
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chloroplast two-component systems: evolution of the link between photosynthesis and gene expression.
S. Puthiyaveetil and J. F. Allen (2009)
Proc R Soc B 276, 2133-2145
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Subunits of the Plastid ClpPR Protease Complex Have Differential Contributions to Embryogenesis, Plastid Biogenesis, and Plant Development in Arabidopsis.
J. Kim, A. Rudella, V. Ramirez Rodriguez, B. Zybailov, P. D. B. Olinares, and K. J. van Wijk (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 1669-1692
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rice Virescent3 and Stripe1 Encoding the Large and Small Subunits of Ribonucleotide Reductase Are Required for Chloroplast Biogenesis during Early Leaf Development.
S.-C. Yoo, S.-H. Cho, H. Sugimoto, J. Li, K. Kusumi, H.-J. Koh, K. Iba, and N.-C. Paek (2009)
Plant Physiology 150, 388-401
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Suppression of the Barley uroporphyrinogen III synthase Gene by a Ds Activation Tagging Element Generates Developmental Photosensitivity.
M. A. Ayliffe, A. Agostino, B. C. Clarke, R. Furbank, S. von Caemmerer, and A. J. Pryor (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 814-831
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis Transcriptome Reveals Control Circuits Regulating Redox Homeostasis and the Role of an AP2 Transcription Factor.
A. Khandelwal, T. Elvitigala, B. Ghosh, and R. S. Quatrano (2008)
Plant Physiology 148, 2050-2058
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Physiological and Transcriptomic Evidence for a Close Coupling between Chloroplast Ontogeny and Cell Cycle Progression in the Pennate Diatom Seminavis robusta.
J. Gillard, V. Devos, M. J.J. Huysman, L. De Veylder, S. D'Hondt, C. Martens, P. Vanormelingen, K. Vannerum, K. Sabbe, V. A. Chepurnov, et al. (2008)
Plant Physiology 148, 1394-1411
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tetrapyrrole profiling in Arabidopsis seedlings reveals that retrograde plastid nuclear signaling is not due to Mg-protoporphyrin IX accumulation.
M. Moulin, A. C. McCormac, M. J. Terry, and A. G. Smith (2008)
PNAS 105, 15178-15183
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of Regulatory Pathways Controlling Gene Expression of Stress-Responsive Mitochondrial Proteins in Arabidopsis.
L. H.M. Ho, E. Giraud, V. Uggalla, R. Lister, R. Clifton, A. Glen, D. Thirkettle-Watts, O. Van Aken, and J. Whelan (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 1858-1873
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Unraveling the Tapestry of Networks Involving Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants.
F. Van Breusegem, J. Bailey-Serres, and R. Mittler (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 978-984
   Full Text »    PDF »
Circadian Timekeeping during Early Arabidopsis Development.
P. A. Salome, Q. Xie, and C. R. McClung (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 1110-1125
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Elucidating the Germination Transcriptional Program Using Small Molecules.
G. W. Bassel, P. Fung, T.-f. F. Chow, J. A. Foong, N. J. Provart, and S. R. Cutler (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 143-155
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deregulation of Maize C4 Photosynthetic Development in a Mesophyll Cell-Defective Mutant.
S. Covshoff, W. Majeran, P. Liu, J. M. Kolkman, K. J. van Wijk, and T. P. Brutnell (2008)
Plant Physiology 146, 1469-1481
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TINY, a Dehydration-responsive Element (DRE)-binding Protein-like Transcription Factor Connecting the DRE- and Ethylene-responsive Element-mediated Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis.
S. Sun, J.-P. Yu, F. Chen, T.-J. Zhao, X.-H. Fang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-F. Sui (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 6261-6271
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Heme, a Plastid-Derived Regulator of Nuclear Gene Expression in Chlamydomonas.
E. D. von Gromoff, A. Alawady, L. Meinecke, B. Grimm, and C. F. Beck (2008)
PLANT CELL 20, 552-567
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plastid Signals Remodel Light Signaling Networks and Are Essential for Efficient Chloroplast Biogenesis in Arabidopsis.
M. E. Ruckle, S. M. DeMarco, and R. M. Larkin (2007)
PLANT CELL 19, 3944-3960
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Double Mutants Deficient in Cytosolic and Thylakoid Ascorbate Peroxidase Reveal a Complex Mode of Interaction between Reactive Oxygen Species, Plant Development, and Response to Abiotic Stresses.
G. Miller, N. Suzuki, L. Rizhsky, A. Hegie, S. Koussevitzky, and R. Mittler (2007)
Plant Physiology 144, 1777-1785
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PLANT SCIENCE: Signaling to the Nucleus with a Loaded GUN.
D.-P. Zhang (2007)
Science 316, 700-701
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882