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Science 316 (5825): 715-719

Copyright © 2007 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Signals from Chloroplasts Converge to Regulate Nuclear Gene Expression

Shai Koussevitzky,1,2,3* Ajit Nott,1,2* Todd C. Mockler,2{dagger} Fangxin Hong,1,2{ddagger} Gilberto Sachetto-Martins,2§ Marci Surpin,2|| Jason Lim,1,2 Ron Mittler,3,4 Joanne Chory1,2

Abstract: Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling coordinates nuclear gene expression with chloroplast function and is essential for the photoautotrophic life-style of plants. Three retrograde signals have been described, but little is known of their signaling pathways. We show here that GUN1, a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, and ABI4, an Apetala 2 (AP2)–type transcription factor, are common to all three pathways. ABI4 binds the promoter of a retrograde-regulated gene through a conserved motif found in close proximity to a light-regulatory element. We propose a model in which multiple indicators of aberrant plastid function in Arabidopsis are integrated upstream of GUN1 within plastids, which leads to ABI4-mediated repression of nuclear-encoded genes.

1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
2 Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
3 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Mail Stop 200, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
4 Department of Plant Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} Present address: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

{ddagger} Present address: Department of Biostatistics, Division of Information Sciences, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, 1500 Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

§ Present address: Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68011, 21941–970, Brazil.

|| Present address: Center for Plant Cell Biology, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: chory{at}salk.edu


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Double Mutants Deficient in Cytosolic and Thylakoid Ascorbate Peroxidase Reveal a Complex Mode of Interaction between Reactive Oxygen Species, Plant Development, and Response to Abiotic Stresses.
G. Miller, N. Suzuki, L. Rizhsky, A. Hegie, S. Koussevitzky, and R. Mittler (2007)
Plant Physiology 144, 1777-1785
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PLANT SCIENCE: Signaling to the Nucleus with a Loaded GUN.
D.-P. Zhang (2007)
Science 316, 700-701
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Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882